Displaying items by tag: Indonesian Lawyer for Divorce

Monday, 07 October 2019 10:30

Real Estate Transaction in Indonesia (1)

When you're purchasing a land and/or a house in Indonesia, you're dealing with a seller or the representative of the seller. You must deal with the owner of the property in order to protect your future investment. The owner must have legal rights to own the property that you are looking to buy. When he has the legal rights in the property, he must has the title of ownership that can be transferrable to you as the buyer.

He must be able to present his certificate of title to prove his ownership. The certificate is issued by the government of the Republic of Indonesia. The authorized government agency that responsible for issuing a certificate of title called Badan Pertanahan Nasional (National Land Registry), so called the BPN. They have offices in every city in Indonesia.

The certificate of title for the house you are going to buy is issued by the land registry office where the property located. The property such as land, houses, apartments are classified under the category of Immovable Property. The legal owner of the immovable property is the person whose name printed on the title certificate. 

Ownership of the Property

The ownership of immovable property is different with the movable ones, such as cars, etc. The legal owner of this type of property is the one whose name(s) printed on the certificate of title. If the ownership has passed-away, his next of kin is the property’s legal owner. They usually consist of the surviving spouse, and his/her children. So, if the owner of the property has gone, make sure you’re dealing with the right person.

As for the movable assets such as cars, the person that controls the property can be considered as the owner, although you might want to check the ownership of the certificate as well. At Wijaya & Co, we always pay attention to details of our client’s case. 

The certificate of title in real estate property is a strong evidence that serves as proof of ownership, as well as proof of registration from the local land registry. Article 19 of Basic Agrarian Law certified that the government of Indonesia is conducting land registration in order to provide legal privilege to the owner whose name printed on the certificate of title. You will automatically be included within the land registry database and therefore are subject to the prevailing laws and regulation in Indonesia. 

Background Check

It is very important to conduct a background check before you’re making any further transaction with the seller of the real estate property. This will give you sufficient information about the current status of the property, as well as its title. The information is enough to get you to decide whether you want to proceed with the sale and purchase transaction.

You will see if there’s any mortgage put on the property. If yes, you need to make sure the owner to remove the mortgage first, before making any further transaction with you as the buyer. You will also find out if the property is under any potential dispute or no. The background check is extremely important and I would suggest not to proceed with the transaction before the background check has been finalized. 

Transfer of Title

You need to perform a proceeding of title transfer when you purchase a real estate property. Your name must be registered as the latest owner of the property after you executed the sale and purchase agreement, and remit the payment to the seller. They will include the details of the agreement you executed with the seller of the property, as well as the date when you entered the agreement.

They will print your name as the current owner of the property on the certificate of title. This proceeding involving the local land registry where the real estate property is located. You will be recognized as the legal owner after the proceeding completed. Please contact me should you wish to discuss any further about this.

 

Our thanks to Mr. Asep Wijaya of Wijaya & Co for sharing this article!

Friday, 16 August 2019 11:10

Police Clearance Certificate in Indonesia

Police clearance certificate in Indonesia also known as Surat Keterangan Catatan Kepolisian (so called “SKCK”). This is the police certificate that certifying your crime record. Previously, known as Good Conduct Certificate (Surat Keterangan Kelakuan Baik/SKKB) certifies that you are not involve in a crime until certain period of time.

The police clearance certificate valid for six (6) months since date of issuing. You may submit a renewal application when you think you need a longer timeframe. At Wijaya & Co, we always pay attention to details of our client’s case. 

If you stay in Indonesia for more than six (6) months, according to our experience, the following countries would require a police clearance from Indonesia:

  1. Italy;
  2. Canada;
  3. Australia;
  4. New Zealand;
  5. United States (Spouses applying for a green card within the United States have to lodge police records instead of police clearance certificate).

Terms and Conditions

Police clearance in Indonesia can only be issued if you stay in Indonesia under a KITAS (Kartu Ijin Tinggal Terbatas/Limited Stay Permit). This is your residency permit as issued by the local immigration office in Indonesia. The KITAS can only obtained through sponsorship of employment or spousal.

Supporting Documents

If you are a foreigner, the required supporting documents for the application of police clearance are as follows:

  1. Copy of your passport;
  2. Copy of your KITAS;
  3. Copy of police report such as SKLD
  4. Fingerprints form;
  5. Power of Attorney.

Some people might not have all complete supporting documents that cover the period of your stay in Indonesia, or you just don't have the required documents but the police clearance is imposed on you by the immigration authorities. This is not a personal attack on you. This is what happen if you're working with bureaucracy everywhere. Please contact me and we'll discuss how you can move forward with your application.

If you are an Indonesian, the police require the following supporting documents:

  1. Attestation from the local Kelurahan/Kecamatan;
  2. Copy of your KTP and family card;
  3. Copy of your birth certificate;
  4. Photograph 4 x 6 cm.

Prerequisite Requirements

The police headquarters require you to supply the police clearance from your local Polres (local police precinct) in the city where you live, before they can issue you one that valid internationally. The reason behind this is because the Polre may know better about your background than the headquarters.

Fingerprints Formula

The police clearance certificate from Indonesia is very complete and has the details of your biographic information, including your fingerprints formula. Each person has very specific fingerprints and non-identical from others. Just like DNA. It consist of number and letters that represent pattern of your fingerprints. This is the reason they may require you to present at the police precinct.

 

Our thanks to Mr. Asep Wijaya of Wijaya & Co for sharing this article!

Real estate transaction in Indonesia is simple, but yet tricky and requires a little knowledge. It is very interesting to dig a little bit of this. Just to make sure you have the big picture. When you're purchasing a land and/or a building, you're dealing with a seller or the representative of the seller. You must deal with the owner of the property in order to protect your future investment. The owner must have legal rights to own the property that you are looking to buy. He/she must be able to present his certificate of title to prove his/her ownership. The certificate is issued by the government of the Republic of Indonesia. The authorized government agency that responsible for issuing a certificate of title called Badan Pertanahan Nasional (National Land Registry), so called the BPN. They have offices in every city in Indonesia. The certificate of title is issued by the land registry office where the property located. The property such as land, houses, apartments are classified under the category of Immovable Property. The legal owner of the immovable property is the person that his/her name printed on the title certificate. 
 
Owner of the Property
The ownership of immovable property is different with the movable ones, such as cars, etc. The legal owner of this type of property is the one whose name(s) printed on the certificate of title. If the ownership has passed-away, his next of kin is the property’s legal owner. They usually consist of the surviving spouse, and his/her children. So, if the owner of the property has gone, make sure you’re dealing with the right person. As for the movable assets such as cars, the person that controls the property can be considered as the owner, although you might want to check the ownership of the certificate as well. At Wijaya & Co, we always pay attention to details of our client’s case. 
 
The certificate of title in real estate property is the strong evidence that serves as proof of ownership, as well as proof of registration from the local land registry. Article 19 of Basic Agrarian Law that the government of Indonesia is conducting land registration in order to provide legal privilege to the owner as per certificate of title. You will automatically be included within the land registry database  and therefore are subject to the prevailing laws and regulation in Indonesia. 
 
Background Check
it is very important to conduct a background check before you’re making any further transaction with the seller of the real estate property. This will give you information about the current status of the property title. The information is enough to get you to decide whether you want to proceed with the sale ans purchase transaction.
You will see if there’s any mortgage put on the property. If yes, you need to make sure the owner to remove the mortgage first, before making any further transaction with you as the buyer. You will find out if the property is under any potential dispute or no. The background check is extremely important and I would suggest not to proceed with the transaction before the background check has been finalizee.
 
Transfer of Title
You need to perform a proceeding of title transfer when you purchase a real estate property. Your name must be registered as the latest owner of the property after you agree to make the payment to the seller. They will include the Sale and Purchase Agreement signed by you as the buyer, and the seller of the property, as well as the date when you entered the agreement. They will print your name as the current owner of the property on the certificate of title. This proceeding involving the local land registry where the real estate property is located. You will be recognized as the legal owner after the proceeding completed. Please contact me should you wish to discuss any further about this.
 
Our thanks to Mr. Asep Wijaya of Wijaya & Co for sharing this article!

Guardianship of a child in Indonesia is a challenging issues. Not only this is the most important part in family and matrimonial law practice, such as adoption cases, divorce cases, and custody disputes. It also plays substantial role in general civil law, such as how a judge determine a child's guardian in representing him/her in all of her legal affairs. 

What is Guardianship?

Article 47 of 1974 Marriage Law stipulated that children under 18 years old or have never been married, are under their parent’s authority. The parent represent them in and outside of the court room. The parental authority may be revoked by the court or may also be removed voluntarily and assigned to other individual. Parental authority is the term set-out in the laws in Indonesia.

It also known as Child Custody. Different terms but discussing the same thing in common. The terms have a very broad meaning: representing the child inside or outside of the court room. This include the whole legal matters involving the child's life such as property, inheritance, other legal matters such as immigration, passport and visa application, schooling, etc. You practically a parent already, minus motherhood. This slightly easier as it does not involve emotion, but still with the same chemistry.

It Is Transferable

The good news is, the guardianship of a child is transferrable. When parent is no longer in the position to perform his/her job, other people, preferably family members may replace them as a guardian of the child. The guardianship of the child may voluntarily appointed by the parent. The person may accept it or he/she may refuse it.

Being a parent indeed is not an easy job. It is the most beautiful thing and yet the hardest job in the world. So, you're excused if you think you won't be able to do it properly. Child Protection Law of 2002 stipulates that in the event of a parent is absent, or unknown, or for some reasons unable to perform his/her duty and responsibility, the job is transferable to other family member. A guardian may be appointed to do the job. They must be same blood family to three degrees upline, such as grand father, grand mother. They can also be three level down line.

The Criterias

When you live with a child and it's not yours, and the parents of the child are still alive, and they don't live with the child physically, legally you are his/her guardian. Local government may require you to have a guardianship document because legally you are responsible for his/her wellbeing. You need to do this to avoid any potential abduction charges incurred from the local rules and regulations. Therefore, you must qualify for a guardianship in the event one of the child's parents is an Indonesian citizen. 

The laws further imposed how a guardian must meet criterias. He/she must at least 18 years of age, physically and emotionally healthy, fair, honest and having a good behavior. Other family members must also be required to supply their opinions about how he/she may be able to perform his/her duty as the child’s guardian. They also have the responsibility to choose the right guardian because everybody knows everybody. This is the beauty of family emotional bonding.

It Takes a Village

They said it takes a village to raise a child. Well, I guess they were right. Hillary Clinton once wrote a book with this topic when she was the first lady of the United States. I read a part of it when I was younger. Such as an interesting book indeed! Please contact me if you wish to discuss this issue any further. Not about Hillary's book, but the guardianship issues I mean. I have some successful portfolios that you can use as reference in this field of law. 

At Wijaya & Co, we handled cases like this: transferring the children guardianship from their parents to their grand mother. Both of them are busy with their works and the grand mother lives in a different country. The guardianship order serves as an immigration clearance as well that allow the grand mother to have parental rights in regards to the furnishing of immigration paperworks. She represents the child and have the legal power to decide on the parent’s behalf, as if having someone to trust to take care of your children, legally.

 

Our thanks to Mr. Asep Wijaya of Wijaya & Co for sharing this article!

The origin of a child is a legal proceeding conducted with the child born out of wedlock in Indonesia. This is to create a relationship between the child and the biological father. It happens when you conceived a child before your marriage legally registered. This may be happen for so many reasons, among others; either of you are not legally divorce when the child was born, you're both legally free to marry but think that the marriage is not for you; or you performed the religious marriage, but not the civil one. So the child comes first, and then the marriage thereafter. By law, the child has only relationship with the mother and her family. You need some extra efforts to establish the connection between the child and its father. The laws in Indonesia has set-out the way forward and it's up to you if you're willing to go the extra mile. Other people have done it, and now it's time for you to do it.

We have Article 43 (1) of Marriage Law certifying that the child has the legal relationship between both the mother, and the father as well as their families. Nevertheless, such claim must be supported with scientific evidence, and other related evidence to prove their blood connection, including civil law relationship with the family of its father. The revised version of this Article has been amended by the Constitutional Court with the verdict number 46/PUU-VIII/2010 on February 17, 2012. In another words, you need to retrieve a DNA test. The results must be 99.9999% that you are not excluded as the father of the child. Take a test of you and the child. They will take your saliva with a tiny cotton bud. It will take less than 30 (thirty) minutes, and then you can call it a day. They will let you know within approximately three (3) weeks. Nervous? You tell me. 

The idea behind the verdict was not only because the marriage between the biological mother and the man that gets her pregnant, but also because the blood connection between the child and the alleged father. Apart from the marriage between the two of them, the child must be legally protected. Therefore, the birth of your child must be reported to the civil registry office within 60 (sixty) days. The strict time-frame is imposed according to Article 27 of Law number 24 of 2013 regarding Administration of Population Law. You will see only the name of the child and its mother, but it is a starting point to initiate the process. The civil registry is to register the birth of your child. They don’t have any authority to prove the relationship between you and your child. You will have to do it in the court of law. Your Indonesian attorney knows technicality like this. Get one with experience in this field. You'll get hicough-free processing case. 

Before you sign that paternity affidavit, you have to make sure that you have the consent from the biological mother. Otherwise, the process will turn sour and your application might be end-up in limbo. The consent from the mother is a statutory requirement in Indonesia. You need to secure that before the application lodged to the court. This proceeding requires both of you to work together for the best interests of the child. I am not saying that you should light the flame between the two of you again. Although this thing does not require you to get marry to each other, but at least you must be able to sit down together and talk without pointing fingers. Think you can do it? If you do, click here give me a call or drop me an email to get our legal review about your case. 

Our thanks to Mr. Asep Wijaya of Wijaya & Co for sharing this article!

Child custody in Indonesia is a family issue that may come into subject matter of the court if you're filing for a divorce. This is something normal in relation to the divorce case. Both parents claim that they are the best for the custody of their children. But do they? How the laws in Indonesian govern something like this? Read on!

Fathers' Engagement

Nowadays, fathers are getting more engaged in the child upbringing in Indonesia. They take the children to school everyday before they go to work. Fathers read with their children at night, teach them and get involved with their everyday's schooling works. Some of them also take them for taking a bath, feed them and get them dressed decently. You can't ignore this phenomenon. This is happening everywhere. They are doing this because they think fathers can do it too. They can even do it better in getting involved with their child's upbringing in Indonesia.  At Wijaya & Co, we always pay attention to details of our client’s case. 

Mother's Career 

Just because your wife is working and have a career, it doesn’t mean that she can’t nurture the child. Just because she’s busy with work, it does not mean she may be able to lose custody of a child if a divorce case in session.

Husband and wife are equal in the marriage life. Both of them have the same rights in their career and business. According to Article 31 of Marriage Law imposed that both husband and wife have the rights to earn a living and. Even sometime, just sometime, wife’s  making more money than her husband. 

Custody of a Child

When you’re still married, they called it parental authority. If you’re divorced, they called it custody. Pretty much the same  issues. It just in Indonesia, we recognized custody parent, and non-custody parent. But this is in theory as in the law books. There's more to it than meet the eyes. The judges are happy as long as you and the child are happy. 

According to Article 105 of Compilation of Islamic Law, child under 12 (twelve) years old, the custody belongs to the mother. For the child above 12, he may choose his custody parent holder. Supreme Court’s ruling number 210/K/AG/1999 imposed that a mother’s privilege for child custody may be revoked if she’s committing apostate and practise other religion beside Islam.

Other Supreme Court’s precedence number 376/PK/Pdt/2011 regarding this matter is also applicable when the female spouse was committing apostate and turned Moslem. Nevertheless, the male spouse was charged with criminal sentence for abandoning their child. So, the judges favor the party with less liability in order to raise the child. 

How to Win the Custody

It’s simple: the best interest of the child! That’s the keywords. It does sounds simple, but might not be easy to do it. Many people knows it, but many of them also fail. Getting yourself involved in school with the children, and teaching them with their English reading are a good start. Really good start. Keep up the good work!

You don’t say that you are richer than your spouse and therefore makes you a better parent. You need to prove that you are better because you put the child first. You need to promote yourself, and destroy the credibility of the opposing party. It sounds cruel, but it's a divorce case anyway. The moment you lodged the case to the court, both of you are opponents. No longer husband and wife. After all, you're doing it for the child. You need to to do it in order to win the custody of the child. But hey! Remember this: it's not about you. It's about the child. Read my lips, put the child first. Please contact me when you need any further assistance with this issue. We have previous portfolios that you can use as your reference. Please contact me should you wish to discuss any further about this.

 

Our thanks to Mr. Asep Wijaya of Wijaya & Co for sharing this article!

When you're married, you're married. Most people wants the marriage for once in a life time. But at some point, you want to "undo" the decision and "reinstate" the status. From married to single. This is doable with the marriage annulment. Although permitted under strict requirements, the application for marriage annulment must be lodged to the court within the territory of the Republic of Indonesia. This is the procedures to turn the clock around under civil law in Indonesia. This has several legal consequences to your marital status. Shall be go over the rest of them? Read on!

Marriage annulment in Indonesia is a court litigation proceedings, similar with divorce application. It requires litigation skills by lawyers who specialize in civil law, family law or international civil law to assist you to navigate with the sophisticated legal system. The proceeding may be conducted with the same chamber of court other family law cases, but some may not be familiar with the proceedings as this one is one of a kind. 

The application for annulment of marriage must meet the following criterias:

  1. It must be made within six (6) months since the marriage date. They have strict time-frame. If you stay in the marriage for for that six months, they think you're accepting the marriage, and you might enjoy tying the not with your spouse. 
  2. Must be made to the court according to your jurisdiction. They set-out a very strict ruling with the court jurisdiction. This is understandable as the legal system needs to provide legal certainty for those who committed with the sacred bond of matrimony. 

The parties that may apply for the marriage annulment are as follows:

  1. Upper line family members of husband, or wife. They include your parents, your grand parents, etc. 
  2. Husband or wife. They must step forward and tell the truth. After all, this is the life they're about to go through;
  3. The authorized officer before the marriage dissolved;
  4. Any party that has legal interest to the marriage, but only after the marriage has been dissolved. This may be related to the the property acquired during the marriage i.e. mortgage with the bank, etc. This thing make things get complicated. Other third parties may be involved in the marriage because finally they are affected as well;
  5. Any person related to the bride or groom under the marriage relationship. The children of either spouse may be included in this category. They are the person that may be suffer more than anybody else if a marriage turns to sour.

One of the main requirements to conduct the annulment that the marriage must be originally performed and registered in Indonesia. It doesn't matter if it was a Moslem or Non-Moslem marriage. It must be registered and recognised under the Indonesia's Marriage Law. The marriage must have proof of registration from the marriage registry in Indonesia. It doesn't matter your nationality, whether you're an Indonesian or not. 

The court upon receipt of the marriage annulment shall hold a litigation proceedings, and the procedures shall be set-up according to the applicable divorce litigation proceedings. Some pointers that you need to anticipate is that the court may require two (2) witnesses to testify. They need to come to the court and supply the information to the judge. The court will take their oath in order to be used as evidence. This is a substantial part of the case and therefore you must have some family members to be support you if you want to go ahead with the case.

Although, the marriage annulment may reverse your marital status, but it will not, in anyway, take effect to the children born into the marriage, property, debt and other financial consequences. This is according to the Article 28 of the Marriage Law. The annulment of a marriage applicable after the court order legally binding. You see we have 14 (fourteen) days waiting period for you to file for an appeal. If they don’t receive any appeal from either party within that period, the annulment will be legally binding.

 

Our thanks to Mr. Asep Wijaya of Wijaya & Co for sharing this article!

Saturday, 08 June 2019 16:16

Why People Like to Get Marry in Indonesia

Marriage in Indonesia is a choice of legality, simplicity, and hassle-free. The reason I put legality first is because the marriage laws protects your marriage, and a little family you raise. The laws require you to perform the marriage according to your religion belief, and recorded at a marriage registry. You need to understand that Indonesia does not recognize only civil marriage. You need to conduct religious ceremony first, before your marriage is legally recognized. In another words, solemnization first, then civil marriage, then reception party.

Bonafide of Your Marriage

The marriage registry in Indonesia will issue marriage license to both you and your spouse as proof that you are legally married. For Moslem couples, they will receive two marriage books. One original copy for each spouse. The colours of the books are brown, and green. They have the same biographic information, and both of them have your pictures too. As for Non-Moslem couples, you will receive two marriage certificates. Each spouse gets one certificate. Both certificates represents the groom and bride information and their picture together. At Wijaya & Co, we always pay attention to details of our client’s case.

The marriage license from Indonesia, both being the marriage book and the marriage certificate are legally recognized worldwide. Major countries like the United States, United Kingdom, China, and some other major European countries recognize and may be able to be used as one of the supporting documents for immigration spousal sponsorship.

Ten (10) Days Waiting Period

In order to obtain legal recognition under the marriage law in Indonesia, you need to allow ten (10) days waiting period. This time frame was meant to give time to the public to recognize you, whether you are legally free to marry or not, You need to meet the marriage requirements in Indonesia, otherwise it is challengable at the court of law. You may face annulment claim by one of the relevant parties. Please see here for further details of how you can avoid your marriage being nullified.

Simplicity

You can perform a marriage in Indonesia with a simple, but yet legal. We cherish a marriage because it is one of the good things in life. If you can show that you are legally free to marry and have no legal impediment why the two of you should wed, our marriage registry will register your marriage and issue a marriage license. One of the most important documents to register your marriage in Indonesia ia Non-Impediment Letter. Some call it Certificate of the Non Impediment ("CNI"). Some event call it Certificate In Lieu of the Non Impediment, because this thing does not exist in a country like Canada. Since they are required to issue one, the issue it anyway.

Please give me a call or drop me an email, should you wish to talk of how I can assist you in any way you need!

 

Our thanks to Mr. Asep Wijaya of Wijaya & Co for sharing this article!

Marriage legalization is applicable to Moslem couples in Indonesia. It is to legalize the marriage previously conducted under religious rites, but not legal according to the state law yet. It may be happened for so many reasons like one of the spouse was ready to make a new commitment with you, but he/she was not legally divorce yet. This can be a burden socially to you, your spouse, and your family. So, you decided to performed the religious marriage. Consuming a marriage life like this is the same thing as if cohabitation. It is the life without legal recognition. The marriage laws in Indonesia are not applicable to you, yet. Not until you legalize the marriage.

Having a marriage legalization means you are legally recognizing the marriage previously conducted. Your official marriage date would be the date you performed the marriage. They may issue you a marriage license and the issuing date of the documents may be recent. That's fine, as it is only to show the issuing date of the documents only. When they do that, your marriage to your spouse is legally registered with the registry database. The marriage law, and family law in Indonesia are applicable normally to you, your spouse, and to your children. This is why the marriage legalization in Indonesia means for you, and your family. At Wijaya & Co, we always pay attention to details of our client’s case.

The thing is, a marriage only legally recognized when it meets two requirements i.e. it is performed according the couple’s religion affiliation, and it must be registered according to the prevailing laws. Article 7 (1) of Compilation of Islamic Law stipulates that a marriage book issued by the marriage registrar is an evidence of a legal marriage. So, the marriage legalization is applicable to the marriage that does not meet this stipulation. It means you can perform the legalization of marriage for getting your marriage registered and issued a marriage book.

There would be no legal protection for the marriage without any registration. The marriage book itself is an evidence that the marriage exists. The registration is protecting your spouse, and children born into your marriage. You see, the marriage is the very basic foundation in your life. As a father, your name will not appear on your child’s birth certificate. Your spouse may not be able to prevail as your next of kin, nor your children. Your assets may not be distributed according to your wishes, and your family may not receive the benefits of your estate. This is the last thing you want.

Article 7 (2) of Compilation of Islamic Law further states that a marriage legalization application may be lodged to the court in the event you’re unable to prove the marriage with a marriage book. The court responsible for your case may have to cross examine all the evidence you submitted together with the witnesses in this matter. There's no guarantee that the court may approve your application, therefore the attempt to legalize the marriage must be done with enough supporting documents, and compliance to the prevailing procedures with the legal system.

The outcome from the proceeding of the marriage legalization in Indonesia will give your spouse, and your children legal protection. Both of them is legally recognized both their rights and obligations according to the laws in Indonesia. Upon completion of the proceedings, your marriage will be recognized, and the court verdict is the proof of your marriage. It consist of some pages of court decision. It may not be practical, but at least it give you protection you and your family need. Please contact me should you wish to discuss any further about this.

 

Our thanks to Mr. Asep Wijaya of Wijaya & Co for sharing this article!

Last will in Indonesia is a legal instrument to distribute your assets after you pass-away. This is your preferred way to get the people you care most to inherit your assets notwithstanding any prevailing rules and regulation regarding inheritance in Indonesia. You can distribute any rights and obligations in the field of property law to your next of kin.

There are three (3) different inheritance laws in Indonesia, and you must specify one law in your last will. We have Customary Law, Islamic Law, and Civil Inheritance Law. The three laws are very different to one another. You may opt one law, regardless your religion affiliation, and once you made the choice, you must stick to it and your family members must respect your option. At Wijaya & Co, we always pay attention to details of our client’s case.

As the person who sign a last will, you will be called a Testator. In order to have a valid last will, you need to comply with several terms and conditions. Some of them are simple, some of them are quite tricky. But let's take it one step at a time. Shall we go over the rest of them?

Minimum Age

In order to be eligible to write a last will, you must at least 18 (eighteen) years old, and you're married. This is the legal requirement that you must comply with. There's no exception for this, otherwise your last will is challengable. Inheritance matter is for real.

In accordance with the Article of 897 of Civil Code imposed that minors, who have not reached the full age of eighteen years, are not allowed to make wills. The competence of the Testator shall be judged based on the condition that he was in at the time that the last will was made. At Wijaya & Co., we always pay attention to our clients' case details. Please contact me should you require any further assessment regarding your valid last will in Indonesia. 

The Subject Involved

The people involved in this case are the deceased with assets to distribute. He/she is called the Heiress. The other that involved in this are called the Heir. This is the people that eligible to inherit after meeting the legal requirements. The heir must be born at the time of the inheritance was opened, and he must alive. 

The Capacity to Inherit

You must have legal capacity to inherit from the deceased. A person must meet the following requirements in order to eligible to receive an inheritance:

  1. They must have blood relationship with the deceased. They can be his child, siblings, father or mother;

  2. They must have a marital relationship with the deceased. They can be either a wife or a husband of the deceased.

How Can You Inherit?

There are several ways you can inherit something from the deceased. You can inherit by law by becoming yourself, or by replacing someone's place. As a child of your parents, by law you have all the rights to inherit all your parents' assets. You can also acting as a replacement of your parent to receive inheritance from your grandparent. This replacement capacity may only happen in the event your parent has passed-away. 

You may not be the person related to the deceased via blood nor a marriage. The other way you can inherit is through a last will. The deceased must include you in his last will as one of his next of kin to receive an inheritance from him after he's gone. There are strict terms and conditions that must be met in order to eligible to inherit via this route. The maximum you can inherit under this scheme is 1/3 after deducted with all the liabilities and expenses. 

Executing Your Last Will

Following the death of the testator, the last will shall be submitted to the probate office. Probate is the proceeding of establishing the validity of a last will. In Indonesia, the government office like this called "Balai Harta Peninggalan" (BHP). The last will must be submitted to the probate office within the jurisdiction of the available inheritance is located. This board open the last will and draft minutes of the submission and the opening of the last will, and is include details therein of the condition that it is in. Thereafter be returned to the your legal representation for further execution of the inheritance. 

The Article 955 of Civil Code imposed that upon the death of the testator, legal title to the properties shall devolve upon the beneficiaries named in the last will as well as the individuals to whom the law grants part of the inheritance.

 

Our thanks to Mr. Asep Wijaya of Wijaya & Co for sharing this article!

 

Marriage in Indonesia is a spiritual bond between a man and a woman as husband and wife with the aim of forming a happy and eternal family (household) based on belief to one and only God. We take marriage a very serious matter. We require both religious and civil marriage to be conducted in order to gain legal recognition. The marriage is legal if you perform the religious marriage before the civil one. We have two types of marriage ceremony in Indonesia i.e. Moslem marriage, and Non-Moslem marriage. Both types of ceremony must go through religious marriage. As for Moslem marriage, they don't require civil registration as it is legally recognized. 

Getting marry in Indonesia is simple, legal, and hassle-free. We encourage people to marry because we think running a marriage is the same thing as if you're  worshiping God. That may be the reason why the require religious marriage comes first before the civil one. Apart from that, there are ten (10) piece of marriage checklist that you must meet with before lodging the notice of intention to get marry. At Wijaya & Co, we always pay attention to details of our client’s case.

Minimum Age to Marry

In September 2019, the Indonesia's parliament passed a bill on revising the 1974 Marriage Law regarding the minimum age to get marry. You must be at least 19 (nineteen) years of age to be able to get marry legally. The minimum age limit applicable both to bride and groom. 

Waiting Period

You must wait at least 10 (ten) days waiting period in order to perform the marriage. This is to meet the publicity requirement. During this period, the marriage registry will publish the notice of the marriage intention to the public to see the if they have any objection to their marriage. Any objection why the two should not be married must be made within this waiting period. Therefore, speak now or forever hold your peace. 

Marriage Registry

Since Indonesia has two types of marriage ceremony, we have also two marriage registries. Office of Religous Affairs (so called "Kantor Urusan Agama" / KUA) for Moslem couples, and Civil Registry for Non-Moslem couples, such as Christian, Buddhist, Hindu, etc. Your marriage registry must have jurisdiction according to your legal domicile. Your actual residence may not be the same with your legal domicile. Therefore, always check your paperworks before lodging any marriage intention.

Legally Free to Marry

You must legally free to marry to your partner. You must supply a certificate of singlehood, if you're single. Your divorce must be absolute, if you're a divorcee. Your divorce certificate must be surrendered in order to get marry and a marriage license will be presented as your new status. If you're a foreigner, you need to supply a certificate of non-impediment letter. It certifies that you are legally free to marry. It must print your name and the name of your fiance(e). 

Bride and Groom

A legal marriage must have a bride and groom to perform the marriage. You must be present during the ceremony. The bride is a female, and the groom must be a male. Indonesia does not recognize same-sex marriage. It is illegal in Indonesia. Straight only!

Witnesses

You must provide at least two (2) witnesses to testify during the marriage. They're must be adult and aged above 19 years of age to be a witnesses. As for Moslem marriage ceremony, the witnesses must be men. They can be either from your family members, common friends, coworker, etc. 

Marriage Guardian

You need a marriage guardian to get marry. You need to have his blessing. If you were to marry in Moslem ceremony, the marriage guardian must meet certain requirements. The guardian is the bride's biological father. If he passed-away, her grand father must replace his place. If both of them are gone, you need her biological brother from the paternity line to replace both of them and perform the ritual of marriage.

Prenuptial Agreement

It is highly recommended to sign a prenuptial agreement before the marriage. It is very useful to secure your financial interests in order to protect your family future from unwanted business risks, preclusion to own property in Indonesia for mixed-marriage couples, etc. Please contact me for further information regarding the prenuptial agreement. Our prenup is the best product in the market. It protects you and your family future.

Dowry

The dowry is a present you give to the bride for accepting the marriage to you. The presents usually in the form of jewellery, such bracelet, necklace, etc. This symbolize the bond of the marriage between the two persons.

Feast

You need to celebrate the marriage with at least a small feast. It is advisable to provide at least snacks and drinks to people who come to your wedding.

Those are the ten pieces of marriage checklist that must exist in your marriage in Indonesia. As I told you, we take marriage very serious. One item missing from your marriage proceedings may cause you marriage challengeable. 

 

Our thanks to Mr. Asep Wijaya of Wijaya & Co for sharing this article!

Friday, 17 November 2017 11:06

Property Division in the Course of Marriage

Marriage is a step that will surely be passed by every human being, male and female. The nature of marriage under applicable Indonesia’s 1974 Marriage Law stated that Marriage is the inner and outer bond between one man and one women as the husband and wife with the intention of forming a happy and eternal family (household). Morevoer, in accordance to Article 2 of Compilation of Islamic Law, marriage is a very strong contract to obey God’s commands and execute its worship. Marriage sparked quite much legal implications, one of which appears as properties, which arise separation or joint marital property. According to The Great Dictionary of the Indonesian Language of the Language Center (Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia Pusat Bahasa), joint marital property is defined as the goods in the form of money and so that becomes property used or utilized together. The terms of joint marital property in our Indonesian community is also popularly known as Gono Gini which derives from Gana-Gini describes by the Great Dictionary of the Indonesian Language as treasures collected over the rights to settle down so that it becomes the the rights of both the husband and wife. The brief explanation of Basic laws and regulations concerning joint marital property would refer to the laws and regulations will be elaborate on next paragraph as follows.
 
Indonesia’s 1974 Marriage Law
  1. Innate Treasures (personal property). Article 35 paragraph 2 of Law No. 1 1974 on Marriage stipulates that property brought into the marriage by the husband and the wife respectively and property acquired by either of them as a gif or inheritance shall remain under their respective control, unless otherwise decided between the parties. That means, if each party obtaining their own goods and are brought into the marriage, remains under the authority of each party.
  2. Joint marital property. In Article 35 paragraph 1 of Indonesia’s 1974 Marriage Law stipulates that Property acquired during marriage shall become joint marital property. the joint marital property here is property acquired by each and every spouse in matrimony for the interest of family. Each party can use the property along with the consent of his or her spouse.
  3. Gift or Inheritance. Let us see again the Article 35 paragraph 1 of Indonesia’s 1974 Marriage Law. It stipulates that common property acquired by each of the spouse as a gift or inheritance shall remain under their respective control. Property acquired during the matrimony becomes joint marital property, and an innate property of each spouse or property obtained by each party as a gift or inheritence is under the authority of each party so long as the parties don’t establish other conditions.
Marital Property in Terms of Islamic Law Compilation
 
In Islamic law, both marriage and divorce are contingent upon the fulfilment of transfers of property, usually from husband to wife. However, Islamic law does not acknowledge the concept of joint martial property, instead vesting rights for any property brought to or produced in marriage with the individual. As Islamic law does not recognize joint marital property, men and women are deemed to have equal rights to own and dispose of their porperty, without requiring the permission of the other spouse. Nonetheless, Islamic law acknowledges partnerships (syirkah) so it considered possible to conceptualize marital property produced through joint effort as partnership property. There is also an obligations from muslim husbands concerning on properties to their wifes. The husband has the right to take care of his wife’s assets and obliged to maintain and preserve the assets.
  1. Inheritence. Islam gives equal rights to men and women. Both were created by God and are of equal spiritual worth. And so in terms of marital property, men and womeh have equal rights. Islamic legal materials generally support women’s right to acquire, hold, use, administer and dispose of property. However, based on teaching of Islam, men have responsibilites that are heavier than women. In terms of Inheritence, men  get a larger share than women as stipulated in the surah An-Nisa verse 11: .”Allah commands you as regards your children’s (inheritance); to the male, a portion equal to that of two females; if (there are) only daughters, two or more, their share is two thirds of the inheritance; if only one, her share is half.”
  2. Mahar (dowry). For the marriage, grooms must provide a gift to the bride (mahar). The provisions of Article 30 of Compilation of Islamic Law states that the prospective groomis required to pay a dowry (mahar) to the bride that number, shape, and type agreed upon by both parties. Furthermore, it stipulates that dowry determination is based on the principles of ease and simplicity advocated by Islam. While dowry is given directly to the prospective bride and it become her personal rights ever since. It can be concluded that the mandatory provision of a dowry is given and expressed by a husband to his future wife in a marriage ceremony which is a sign of their approval and willingness to live as husband and wife. The form can be anything as long as it has value.
  3. Grants, or  (hibah) or gifts are given goods that have a social function in people’s lives either it is given by individuals or institutions. The grant is given by  a person to the other when he / she still alive. The implementation of division of grants is usually done at the time the testator still alive. This means that the person granted posesses full rights to the property, but it could also be acquired into a joint marital property with the consent of both parties.
  4. Properties acquired as the results of own’s effort. Marital property can usually be separated into four groups as follows. Merely: goods acquired by spouses from inheritence or bequesst of relatives of each party and were brought into the marriage, goods acquired during marriage belongs to the husband and wife as the joint marital property, goods obtained by each party for each seles before or during marriage, and  items awarded to the husband and wife at the time of marriage. In terms of joint marital property, the husband and wife can commingle their properties. In islam, it is known as Syirkah or mixing assets acquired by each spouses during marriage, or their joing efforts. This also applies to the assets derived from inheritance, gifts, and grants. All of which may remain as the property either acquired before marriage or after marriage with the consent of each spouses.
Martial Property in Private International Law
 
Private International Law contains three important streams of the marital property, namely:
  1. The establishment who sees marriage property law, for example, an immovable goods belongs to the status reel. There is a distinction between movable and immovable. The principle of lex rei sitae applied to the immovable  objects, while the movable object is placed under their place of domicile.
  2. the establishment that a marrital property law belongs to the field of personal status.
  3. Marital property law is a contract between husband and wife, thus the will of both parties will determined what kind of law to be used. The parties can make a prenuptial agreement and in this case, they will used the law that they have chosen.
Arrest 1929 which is a decision of Hooge Raad in Netherlands in 1929 is considered as the basis of marital property law in Private International Law. This Arrest stipulates that marital properties including personal status, ia s unity, and the law of marital property can not be changed.
 
Divsion of marital property under Indonesia’s 1974 Marriage Law
 
Article 37 of Indonesia’s 1974 Marriage Law which contains provisions concerning joint property does not explicitly stipulates the division of property for each spouses if the marriage is ended whether it is by divorce or ended because one person dies. The article however stipulates, if the marriage is ended because of divorce, the joint marital property will be governed by the law applicable to each divorce parties. It is not described about provisions on the arrangement regarding the division of joint martial property if it is associated with filing a divorce petition. The arrangements regarding on the division of marital joint property will be governed by the law applicable to the parties, for example, the Moslems will surely apply to the Religious couort. In this case, the applicable law would certainly be Compilation of Islamic Law.
 
The division of marital property according to Compilation of Islamic Law
 
In the Compilation of Islamic Law, the division of joint marital property governed by Article 96 and 97. Those articles stipulates about the division of joint martial property for the spouses if the marriage ends, whether by divorce or the death of another party. Each will get half of the joint property.  It is said that:
(1) If the marriage is ended because one person dies, then the property that constitutes common property (Shared Property) falls to the party that lives longer.
( 2 ) the division of joint property for a husband or wife or husband who lost should be deferred until there is certainty that the ultimate death or die in the law on the basis of religious court decisions
whereas Article 97 stipulates that widow or widower who divorced entitled to one-half of the joint property to the extent so long as the parties don’t establish other conditions. It can be concluded that the division of joint marital property because of divorce can be done directly between the former husband and wife, with each spouse entitled to one-half. But this provision does not apply when there is prenuptial agreement held by both parties.
 
Prenuptial Agreement
 
For many of us there is a gap between the marriage we have and the marriage we thought we would have. Disputes around property division in the course of marriage could be prevent by making a prenuptial agreement. It could brings altogehter a positive impact on relationship breakdown. As we have discussed earlier, Indonesia’s 1974 Marriage Law has given the opprotunity for those who want to set it up. Prenuptial agreement is one way to minimize the divorce because of the provisions in it are burdened with obligations that will create one of the parties to reconsider filing for divorce. Prenuptial agreements can also be used as a means to provide legal protection to the property of the spouses. The parties could determine whether a prenuptial agreement would regulates the separation of property in marriage or sets a joint marital property or whatever they want. The prenuptial agreement is faciliaed in Indnesia and can be upheld in court. The laws governing prenuptial agreements (prenup) stipulate that the agreement should be made prior to marriage. The legal grounds for the prenup come from severalapplicable Indonesian laws, including: Civil Code, 1974 Marriage Law, and Compilation of Islamic Law, as follows:
  1. Article 47 (1) of Compilation of Islamic Law Article stipulates similar provision with the Marriage Law: “At the time of or before the marriage took place, the bride and groom may enter into an agreement approved by the Registrar of Marriage regarding the management of community property.”
  2. The 1974 Marriage Law in Article 29(1) stipulates that: “At the time of or before the marriage took place, with the mutual consent of both parties, they may enter into an agreement approved by the Civil Registrar of marriage, after which it shall also apply to third parties as long as it involves them as well.” Another provision stipulated in the marriage law is that the agreement cannot be amended during marriage, except upon approval of both parties and cannot cause disadvantage to any third party. This stipulation comes from Article 29(4) in the Marriage Law.
  3. Article 199 of the Civil Code stipulates that: “From the commencing of a marriage, there shall exist by law, community property between the spouses to the extent that no other stipulations have been made in the prenuptial agreement.”
The Law in Indonesia does not provide a ready-made framework for a prenuptial agreement. One has to find a lawyer to help them define their particular needs of the husband and wife. Naturally, both parties are free to determine the provisions of the prenuptial agreements as long as it does not abide the law and morality of public.
 

I am Asep Wijaya. Thank you for visiting my blog, and reading my posts.

****

Our thanks to Asep Wijaya, Managing Director of Wijaya & Co for sharing this information with us!
 

Disclaimer:

The above is provided for informational purposes only and is NOT to be relied upon as legal advice. This information is not a substitute for the advice of an attorney and should not be construed as a solicitation. No attorney-client relationship is established by use of information found within this article nor in this website.

 
Thursday, 16 November 2017 13:43

Marriage Annulment

Marriage annulment in Indonesia is being conducted in very limited requirements. It must be done within six (6) months since the marriage date. Otherwise, you better go with divorce proceedings. 

You need to have the following reasons for conducting a marriage annulment:

  1. if either spouse in the married couple is still bound in a marriage with another person so that the second marriage cannot be continued,
  2. if the married couple are discovered to have a blood relationship,
  3. if the marriage is conducted without the consent of a guardian or conducted by an invalid guardian,
  4. if the marriage was forced,
  5. and so on pursuant to the law.

A husband or a wife may submit a petition for marriage annulment in the event the marriage was conducted under threat or if, at the time of marriage, there was a misunderstanding or one of the two parties believed that he/she was deceived. If the threat is stopped or the misunderstood party realizes his/her mistake, but within six months they still live as a married couple, and neither of them uses his/her right to annul the marriage, their right will be null and void.

Consider the following issues in order to get an annulment proceeding carried-out by our firm:

  1. Experienced family law attorneys;
  2. High success rates in previous similar cases handled by our attorneys that will also contribute to your success;
  3. Conclusive legal binding;
  4. World-wide legal recognition.

Call or email us in getting the most important part of your life "undo" legally with the assistance of passionate family law practitioners in Indonesia.

Our thanks to Asep A. Wijaya, Managing Director of Wijaya & Co for sharing this information with us!

 

Disclaimer:

The above is provided for informational purposes only and is NOT to be relied upon as legal advice. This information is not a substitute for the advice of an attorney and should not be construed as a solicitation. No attorney-client relationship is established by use of information found within this article nor in this website.

Tagged under
Thursday, 16 November 2017 09:27

Foreign Divorce in Indonesia

Foreign divorce for all-foreign spouses in Indonesia is possible. This usually happens to couple who live in Indonesia long enough and both of them are expats. Certain situation must be met before you can access our legal system. First, minimum contact of the spouses in Indonesia. This is to see if the court in Indonesia has jurisdiction. Second, reporting/registration of the foreign marriage. Three, how Indonesian law can rule in your divorce case. Divorce in Indonesia must meet at least one of the legal grounds.  

How Long is Long Enough?

In order to secure your access to the Indonesia's legal system, you need to have a minimum contact of at least one (1) year. You and your wife must maintain 12 (twelve) months residency before the court in Indonesia may be able to consider your divorce case. Having a child born or school in Indonesia is even better. You have better connection and stronger contact with our legal system. If you're employed by the the company in Indonesia, the chance of getting your marriage dissolved by the court here is even higher.

The fact that either of you can't access the court system in your home country is a bummer. I have a US client in Jakarta filed for a divorce in Washington court. They spent time and money just to see the court did not have any jurisdiction in their case. What a waste!

Dissolving a Foreign Marriage

Having your marriage performed outside of Indonesia, doesn't mean you have to report or even register your marriage in Indonesia. You or your wife doesn't have to do that. Some laws in Indonesia requires the parties in the marriage to report the marriage to government authorities, but it only applicable in the event one of you is an Indonesian citizen, or both of you are Indonesian.

Since both of you are non-Indonesian, the reporting obligation is not applicable to you. Article 56 of the 1974 Marriage Law, it is not for you and your wife. This is the proceeding to dissolve a foreign marriage between two foreign spouses, in Indonesia. If either of you is an Indonesian citizen, you don't have to report or register your marriage. So, don't bother!

Your Law is Our Law

Dissolving a marriage in Indonesia, we have the legal grounds to do that. It's not really printed on the Marriage Law. It's in the 1975 Government Regulation. You know, the legal instrument implementing the Marriage Law in more details. You can't have it dissolved by mutual consent. It's not legal here. There are factual situations that must be met with the legal grounds. Your domestic situation at least must meet one of the legal grounds for dissolving a marriage. They have been regulated in the 1975 Government Regulation, which are, in the event one of the parties:

  1. has committed adultery, is an alcoholic, is addicted to drugs, is a gambler or exhibits other vices which are difficult to cure;

  2. has left the other spouse for two consecutive years, without consent and without legitimate reasons or the absence of reasons beyond his control;

  3. has been sentenced to imprisonment for five (5) consecutive years or a longer period;

  4. has resorted to cruelty or severe ill treatment, endangering the life of the other spouse;

  5. has developed a disability or disease, preventing from fulfilling the duties of husband or wife; or

  6. has irreconcilable differences.

So, those legal grounds, at least one of them, must be recognized in your law. Well, I have nothing further on this one. Your law, is not really my department.

Be Nice to Your Friends!

You have to present witnesses to the court. Well, at least two. Unfortunately, it's not one of the CSI movies where you can supply scientific evidence, without any single human being taking a stand at the court room. They want a person, in a flesh and blood, supplying information and describing what happened to your marriage. They want to have a conversation with your witnesses. They want to talk to them. So, let them talk about your marriage in front of you. There's nothing to hide. Just make sure you give them interesting subject to discuss with. 

Yes, I know. It's a conventional civil procedures law we have been using for more than one millennium. It's our legal system, and you have to work with it if you want them to dissolve your foreign marriage in Indonesia. You will have to start looking for them. Your witnesses. They can be anyone. Your domestic staffs, colleagues, common friends, and whoever knows anything about your domestic background. Foreign witnesses are also welcome. They will have to do you a quite simple job: to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth. The most sacred job of being a human, and they will have to do it on a witness bench. The loneliest place on earth. 

Our thanks to Asep A. Wijaya, Managing Director of Wijaya & Co for sharing this information with us!
 

Disclaimer:

The above is provided for informational purposes only and is NOT to be relied upon as legal advice. This information is not a substitute for the advice of an attorney and should not be construed as a solicitation. No attorney-client relationship is established by use of information found within this article nor in this website.

Tagged under
Wednesday, 15 November 2017 10:11

How to Divorce in Indonesia

In Indonesia, every divorce lawyer will have to refer to the 1974 Marriage Law and its implementing rules for divorce and  marital dissolution. A divorce petition must be filed at the local district court for Non-Moslems, and local Religious Court for Moslems. There are certain marital dissolution reasons according to 1974 Marriage Law and Islamic Law, they are:

Marriage Law

Pursuant to Marriage Law, a marriage may be terminated due to several reasons as follows:

  1. Death of either party
  2. Divorce
  3. Upon court’s decision

Death

The death to either party will automatically terminate the marriage.

Divorce

One of the means to dissolve a marriage is by divorce. Divorce may only be executed before a court session, before the district court for Non-Moslems and before the religious court for Moslems. Therefore, either one of the parties wanting to divorce needs to file a divorce petition to the court.

There are  legal grounds of filing for divorce that every divorce lawyer has to advise his/her clients with, and they have been regulated in the Marriage Law, which are, in the event one of the parties:

  1. has committed adultery, is an alcoholic, is addicted to drugs, is a gambler or exhibits other vices which are difficult to cure;

  2. has left the other spouse for two consecutive years, without consent and without legitimate reasons or the absence of reasons beyond his control;

  3. has been sentenced to imprisonment for five (5) consecutive years or a longer period;

  4. has resorted to cruelty or severe ill treatment, endangering the life of the other spouse;

  5. has developed a disability or disease, preventing from fulfilling the duties of husband or wife; or

  6. has irreconcilable differences.

Annulment to Dissolve Your Marriage

Marriage annulment means that any marriage may be cancelled if both parties cannot fulfill the conditions for the marriage. A marriage annulment can only be decided by a court of law.

Families in a straight line of descent and above the husband or wife (For example: father, mother, grandfather etc of husband or wife.) , an authorized/appointed official, and anyone directly possessing legal interest in the marriage may file a request for marriage annulment.

Any request for marriage annulment may be submitted to a court within the jurisdiction where the marriage was conducted or within the jurisdiction of the residence of the married couple (in accordance with Article 38 (1) Government Regulation No. 9 Year 1975 regarding the Implementing Rules of 1974 Marriage Law) the husband, or the wife. A marriage annulment may be filed for the following reasons:

  1. the marriage guardian (so called “wali” ) is illegal; or
  2. the marriage was not attended by two witnesses.
  3. The marriage was performed in front of unauthorized marriage registrar.

The right to annul a marriage by a husband or wife based on such reasons becomes null and void if they live together as a married couple and can show the marriage certificate issued by the unauthorized officer of the marriage registry. In this instance the marriage has to be conducted again in order to make it legal.

The husband or wife may request an annulment of their marriage, if the marriage was conducted before an unauthorized officer of a marriage registry, or if the marriage was conducted under a threat that violates the law, or if there is a misunderstanding between the husband and wife.

His/her right will be null and void if the threat has stopped or if the misunderstood party? realizes the situation, but doesn’t use his/her right to request for marriage annulment within six (6) months after living together as married couple. Example of a “misunderstood condition” would be if the husband thought the wife was a virgin, but in fact she was not – so I misunderstood about her personal conditions.

Annulment of a marriage commences upon the court decision and is permanent and legal binding and applies as of the time of marriage was conducted. However, such a decision is not retroactively effective to:

  1. children born from the marriage;

  2. husband or wife acting with good intention, except against joint property, if the annulment is based on a previous marriage. The annulment decision is retroactively effective to the joint property of the parties in the event the marriage was entered and one of the couples was not legally free to marry.

  3. a third party, so long as he/she has the rights based on good faith.

Islamic Law

In Islam, a marriage may be terminated due to several reasons, namely:

  1. Death of either party
  2. Thalak
  3. Judge’s Decision
  4. Khulu
  5. Li’an
  6. Ila’
  7. Murtad (apostate)

When a husband or wife passes away, their marriage is automatically terminated. When a wife passes away, her husband doesn’t have any legal difficulties in marrying another woman, but can remarry immediately. But, when a husband passes away, his wife has to wait for four (4) months and 10 days before she can marry another man.

Literally, thalak means to release (abandon). Thalak or divorce is the right given to a man and is an action of releasing a woman from the marriage. In Islam, this method of divorce has been stipulated, but it is accompanied by the explanation from the Prophet Mohammad that God doesn’t like divorce.

Divorce through a judge’s decision may be due to several reasons, such as, among others, that the husband is unable to provide the basic necessities of life, the husband commits torture against his wife, the husband vanishes (being far away from or not being near his wife), or that the husband is serving a term in prison.

Fasakh is the cancellation of marriage agreement (akad) and the termination of a marriage between a husband and wife due to damage taking place in the marriage agreement (akad) or due to sudden reasons that may hamper the continuation of the marriage agreement (akad). For instance, it could be due to a problem in the family relationships. Fasakh will cause the marriage agreement (akad) to be annulled.

Khulu’ is a divorce given by a husband to his wife with payment to the wife. Khulu’s is required by Islam for balancing the thalak right for a husband when there is a hatred that cannot be settled peacefully.

A marriage may be terminated due to li’an, because the person making the li’an in the fith oath says that God’s curse is upon him/herself if he/she is a liar. As a result of li’an, the marriage is terminated forever. If the accusing husband denies the birth of a child by saying that the child is not his, the child is not the offspring of this husband any longer, but legally becomes an illegitimate child and becomes the child of accused wife. The child cannot inherit from his/her father (the accusing husband). If the child is female, her guardian is a judge of justice, if the child will marry someone else.

Murtad (apostate) is when a Moslem abandons Islam. If a husband or wife is judged apostate, their marriage is terminated due to their action.

Marriage dissolution based on the grounds of thalakli’an, and khuluk’ shall only valid in the event they are conducted at the religious court.

Annulment according to Compilation of Islamic Law

Compilation of Islamic Law which is enacted under Presidential Instruction Number 1 of 1991 also governs marriage annulment under several reasons:

  1. Polygamy conducted by husband without the permission from the Religious Court;
  2. The bride is not legally free to marry and still in a marriage with other man;

  3. The bride in the period of ‘iddah of her previous husband, Iddah means a waiting period where a woman is not allowed to marry other man. The period may vary according to the reason of her previous marriage dissolution i.e. 130 days due to death, and 90 days due to divorce;

  4. The marriage is not comply with the minimum of age requirement as governed by the 1974 Marriage Law;

  5. Married performed without wali nikah (marriage guardian) or performed with unauthorized one;

  6. Marriage performed under threat

Marriage annulment is also known as fasakh is the cancellation of marriage agreement (akad) and the termination of a marriage between a husband and wife due to defect taking place in the marriage agreement (akad) or due to sudden reasons that may hamper the continuation of the marriage agreement (akad). For instance, it could be due to a problem in the family relationships. Fasakh will cause the marriage agreement (akad) to be annulled.

Annulment petition can be filed at the local religious court having jurisdiction over the residence of husband or wife or may be submitted to the local religious court within the jurisdiction where the marriage was conducted. Court decree on marriage annulment shall take effect retroactively since the date of marriage took place.

Parties to authorize for annulment petition are:

  1. Family in a upper and lower straight line such as parents, and siblings;
  2. Husband or wife;
  3. Authorized officers responsible in supervising the performance of marriage as governed by law;
  4. Other parties who aware of any marriage defect in terms of marriage requirements as imposed by the prevailing law.

Our thanks to Asep A. Wijaya, Managing Director of Wijaya & Co for sharing this information with us!
 

Disclaimer:

The above is provided for informational purposes only and is NOT to be relied upon as legal advice. This information is not a substitute for the advice of an attorney and should not be construed as a solicitation. No attorney-client relationship is established by use of information found within this article nor in this website.

Tagged under
Page 1 of 2

© 2021. All Rights Reserved