Displaying items by tag: Divorce in Indonesia

Thursday, 21 March 2019 09:07

Child Custody in a Divorce Case in Indonesia

Child custody in Indonesia is one of the consequences of a divorce between a husband and a wife, Divorce may be the solution for both of you. It may be your best way out, but the law suggets it can only be used as a last resort. It means both of you should work hard to keep your marrriage intact. In Indonesia, you should have enough reason to dissolve your marriage. You just can’t say: “I have enough of you! Let’s get divorce!” They won’t allow you to get divorce on this ground. Article 39 (2) of the Marriage Law stipulated that in order to get a divorce, both husband and wife must have enough reason that they will not be able to live in harmony.

There are legal grounds of filing for divorce that every divorce lawyer in Indonesia has to advise his clients with, and they have been regulated in the Marriage Law, which are, in the event one of the parties:

  1. has committed adultery, is an alcoholic, is addicted to drugs, is a gambler or exhibits other vices which are difficult to cure;
  2. has left the other spouse for two consecutive years, without consent and without legitimate reasons or the absence of reasons beyond his control;
  3. has been sentenced to imprisonment for five (5) consecutive years or a longer period;
  4. has resorted to cruelty or severe ill treatment, endangering the life of the other spouse;
  5. has developed a disability or disease, preventing from fulfilling the duties of husband or wife; or
  6. has irreconcilable differences.

For couples married in Moslem ceremony, Article 166 of Islamic Compilation Law added two more legal ground to get divorce. They are:  a. You may get divorve in the event a husband broke his taklik talak. It’s a marriage vow soon after the Moslem couples performed the marriage. If you forget about it, you may want to check the back page of your marriage book; b. Apostate.  In the event your spouse convert back to his/her previous belief, other than Islam. The above legal grounds are optional. I mean, your divorce case doesn’t have to meet all of the legal grounds. You just have to include ome of them, and supply two witnesses to take the stand at the court room. 

As for the child custody, the decision follows after the marriage has been dissolved. The custody of a child under the age of 12 belongs to the mother. Article 105 of Islamic Compilation Law imposed that a child aged 12 (twelve) has a freedom to choose between its mother or father. They tend to give the custody to the mother because they think women is the best figure to nurture the child. They are more compassionate than men. They think women can do it better than men. In short, they think the Islamic Compilation Law has maternal preference. It's also has sole custody principle that allow one parent to be a custody holder, and the other parent is a non-custody parent. But, in the field of practice those things are not always happen. They don't always do their jobs. They can be either mentally unstable, committing adultery, leaving the child at home during night time to meet friends, hang out and partying all night, or even jeopardizing the child's well-being. Those are the circumstances where you as the father may take over the custody of your child. You can’t just say that you’re financially better than your wife, and you think you deserve the custody. Our Marriage Law considered husband is a bread maker in the family. You have the obligation to support your children. This is the universal value every where, I supposed.

The ultimate consideration of having a child custody is for the best interests of the child. It's imposed by the 2002 Child Protection Law. The judges assess and measure your ability in providing what’s best for your child. Factors included in the assessments are physical and mental health, intellectuality, independence, and utmost good faith in allowing his/her ex-spouse to have parenting and visitation. In another words, you still need to talk to you ex-spouse even though you are no longer married to each other. This is for the best interests of the child. The one that meets the requirements is the most eligible to serve as custody holder of the child.

I would like to bring your attention to the court verdict number 110K/AG/2007 issued by the Supreme Court in December 2007. The holding from the court was, among others, the ultimate consideration of having child custody (Hadhanah in Arabic term) is for the best interests of the child, not merely the most normatively entitled to. The court further stipulated that even though the child was only 7 (seven) years, and the mother frequently travelling overseas and leave the child all alone by herself, while the father actually always be there for the child giving her steady and stable life, so therefore they found the father was entitled to the custody of the child. This is one of the most brilliant court's products in Indonesia, and considered as "jeopardizing" the maternal preference since the Islamic Compilation Law enacted in 1991. But I mean, apart from that, you know, you can really lose your rights in getting child custody, even though the law prefers you due to gender preference. As parents, I believe we must put ourselves behind the children's interests and put them as our priority in life. I am sure we're all love our children so very much. 

 

Our thanks to Asep Wijaya, Managing Director of Wijaya & Co for sharing this information with us!

Child born out of wedlock in Indonesia may include its biological father on its birth certificate. The only way to do this is by getting the father acknowledge the child. They must support the claim with a DNA test, and backed by at least two witnesses. Furthermore, the legalization of a child must be court-approved. Otherwise, the civil law relationship between the father and his child will not be established. It is very important because this is where it all begins. 

The civil law relationship between the father and his child begins with a birth certificate. When you see his name on his child’s birth certificate, you will see they have something between them. This the truth lies in the amended Article 43 (1) of the Marriage Law. The legal protection given by the Constitutional Court with its breakthrough verdict. They are giving the child an identity printed on its birth certificate with full names of mom and dad. This is the real truth. You get the legal protection for the child in the form of a birth certificate. Nothing less, nothing more. Therefore, you need to do something about it for the sake of your child's future. 

Originally, the Article 43 (1) was not allow you to include the father’s name on the child’s birth certificate. It only recognize the relationship between the child and its biological mother. Some thinks that it’s not fair. Some thinks that it’s legally bastardizing the child. Other thinks we need to allow them to use both parents’ name on the child’s birth certificate, even though the marriage of the parents is still illegitimate. So, the amendment of this article is also about giving the child what they deserve and not to punish them for something what their parents did. The Civil Code furthermore imposed that as long as the child was acknowledged by the father and the mother, he/she may inherit from the parents. But the child may only have legal relationship with the person that acknowledge it. No further relationship with the rest of the family. In general, if a parent have legitimate children, a wife or a husband, the out of wedlock child entitles to only 1/3 of the legitimate child's share. 

As for Moslem couples, you need to dig this a little deeper as the amended Article 43 (1) will not create other consequences such as inheritance, and nasab relationship, as they thought they will have those two in the area of civil law. In Islamic Laws, if you’re conceiving a child outside of religious marriage, even though the father acknowledge it, the nasab relationship will not be established, even the father voluntarily acknowledge his child. Nasab relationship is parental relationship between the father and his child, created only through legitimate marriage betwen the father and the child's mother. Without it, there won’t be a nasab even the father acknowledges his child. This one of the inconvenient truths retrieved from the child legalization proceeding under the amended Article 43 (1) of the Marriage Certificate. 

If you're a Moslem, and you have an out of wedlock child, you need to refer further to the Islamic Compilation Law. This special civil law for Moslem couples governing activities like marriages, divorces, inheritances, and other issues related to family law. As for Non-moslem couples, you need to refer further to the Civil Code. According to those laws, both the Islamic Compilation Law, and the Civil Code, they imposed that child born out of wedlock can't inherit from the father, even though he acknowledges his child. This is a further legal consequences of child legalization as amended by the Article 43 (1). It seems to me, the amendment by the Constitutional Court was only to provide the child with a birth certificate with full parents' name. The ruling stops there. It does not solve any further complication regarding the issues related to the status of being an out of wedlock child. As parents of child born out of wedlock, you must not allow this to happen to you child. You need to do something. I would suggest you draw-up a last will and testament. This is the only possible solution to protect your child from the legal limbo regarding this issue in Indonesia

 

Our thanks to Asep Wijaya, Managing Director of Wijaya & Co for sharing this information with us!

A child is born out of wedlock when its mother was pregnant by a man without any legal marriage in Indonesia. It’s a simple definition indeed, but we have broader definitions depending on the situation. It’s according to Civil Law. The child was born and the marriage of its parents was not properly registered. The child was born out of the parents and they never married before, both religious and civil marriage. The definition of child born out of wedlock also include the child born to parents who aren’t legally marry to each other. It means, they are still legally attached to their spouses. In another words, the child was born out of adulterous relationship. On the other hand, the 1974 Marriage Law defined that a legitimate child is a child was born into the legal marriage of the parents, or as a result of the legal marriage of its parents. The marriage of the parents is legal and registered. They performed the marriage legally proper according to the religion and law procedures. So, basically the out of wedlock child was born when the legality of its parents’ marriage is still in question.

This is very interesting and pretty challenging issues, as Indonesia’s Constitutional Court amended the ruling in 1974 Marriage Law that the child has legal relationship with the mother and its biological father, even though their marriage is still in question. They are establishing a civil law relationship between the child and its alleged father, through a DNA test, while on the other hand, the validity of the marriage is fuzzy enough to call it legal. The idea was to give legal protection to the children born out of wedlock, and that they need to make sure that the children can access its rights. Know all men by these presents, in Indonesia when a man got a woman pregnant, he is legally related to the child, regardless the marriage do exist or not. The last thing they want is to punish the child for something that the parents did. 

The application for bringing the legality to the child must be made by either parent, if not by both of them, to the court of law. According to Article 44 (2) of the Marriage Law, the court has the authority to determine the legality of the child. This proceeding depends on the father’s acknowledgment of the child, because it creates the relationship between the father and the child legally. The Civil Code in Article 280 imposed that situation. Legal consequences are being established, between the father and child, such as child support, guardianship, using of father’s family name, and inheritance. 

The implementation of this proceeding is to issue a birth certificate for the child, with complete names of the mother and the alleged father. According to the Article 55 of the Marriage Law, the birth certificate is the authentic proof of the child’s origin. Child born out of wedlock can only have the mother’s name printed on its birth certificate. The name of the father can only be printed as well if he acknowledges the child. Article 284 of Civil Code imposed that the biological mother must approve such acknowledgment. The proceeding must have her consent. So, yes, it takes two to tango. 

There is one thing you should bear in mind. This is the legalization of the child that born out of legal marriage. This is NOT the legalization of the marriage itself. It’s quite challenging because you must meet our statutory requirements as imposed by the Marriage Law and its implementing regulations. Basically, the laws in Indonesia based on monogamous marriage. You need to legally free to marry to legalize your marriage. Please call me or email should you would like to discuss the issues any further. You can reach me here: http://www.wijayaco.com/contact

My name is Asep Wijaya. Thank you for reading my posts.

****

Our thanks to Asep Wijaya, Managing Director of Wijaya & Co for sharing this information with us!
 

Disclaimer:

The above is provided for informational purposes only and is NOT to be relied upon as legal advice. This information is not a substitute for the advice of an attorney and should not be construed as a solicitation. No attorney-client relationship is established by use of information found within this article nor in this website.

 
 

Child born out of wedlock in Indonesia doesn’t have its father’s name printed on the birth certificate. He/she can only have relationship with its mother and her mother’s family. The child doesn’t have any relationship with the biological father. Not until you as the father acknowledges it or legalizes it into his marriage to the child ‘s mother. You must support your acknowledgment with a DNA test, and the two witnesses taking the stand at the court of law. This proceeding is conducted in order to prove blood relationship between the child and the father. It will then creates legal relationship between the two of them. This is the essence of the rule in Article 43 (1) of the Marriage Law as amended by the Constitutional Court number 46/PUU-VIII/2010 dated Feb. 17, 2012.  

Furthermore, the amended Article 43 (1) stipulates as follow: "The child born out of wedlock has legal relationship with the biological mother and her family, and has legal relationship with the alleged father proven with scientific evidence and/or other evidence according to the laws that they have blood relationship, including civil law relationship with the father's family."

You don’t need to fix the legality of the marriage in order to acknowledge the child born out of wedlock. This is about getting a child legalized. It’s about getting to know the child’s origin by having the father and the mother’s names printed on the child’s birth certificate. It’s not about getting a marriage legalization. Those are two different things. When you as the father acknowledges the child, the legal relationship between the child and the father will be created as stipulated by Article 280 of Civil Code.  

The legalization of child born out of wedlock is to give legal protection to all the children in this matter. The law must protect the children and make sure they get what they deserve, even though the marriage of the parents is still in question. The protection must be implemented in the form of birth certificate with all the parents’ names printed on it. Article 55 of Marriage Law stipulates that the origin of a child can only be supplied by authentic birth certificate. This is the basic rights that the child must be able to have. The certificate is very useful when the child is applying for the school, passport for travelling, and other basic rights for her/his nurturing needs.

The birth certificate of an out of wedlock child does not include the father's name. Only name of the mother. It says something like is: "Premarital son/daughter of a woman named [insert mother's name]." It's because when the child was born, it only related to the mother and her family legally. When a birth certificate does not include complete names of the parents, it does not tell you the origin of the child. It doesn't comply with Article 55 (1). In order to include the name of the father on the birth certificate, a father must acknowledge the child with the consent from the biological mother. Without it, the court may not be able to approve the legalization. So, in order to legalize your child born out of wedlock, you need to present a case with complete evidence. Otherwise, they may reject the case and your child remain illegitimate child for good. As the father, you won’t be able to have access to the child legally. You can’t have joint custody of the child. Many cases like this where fathers lost cases in the court fighting for the custody of their children. You have to be careful, because you only have one bite of the apple. You better make it works.

I am Asep Wijaya. Thank you for reading.

****

Our thanks to Asep Wijaya, Managing Director of Wijaya & Co for sharing this information with us!
 

Disclaimer:

The above is provided for informational purposes only and is NOT to be relied upon as legal advice. This information is not a substitute for the advice of an attorney and should not be construed as a solicitation. No attorney-client relationship is established by use of information found within this article nor in this website.

Child born out of wedlock in Indonesia has some key issues in its proceedings. If you have a child born out of legitimate marriage, you should know these and make sure you don't get conflicted by our legal system. First, we have now amended Article 43 (1) of the Marriage Law stipulates that child born out of wedlock not only has civil relationship with its mother and her family, but the child also have civil relationship with the biological father, and his family as well.

The starting point to draw a fine line between the child and the father, is by having the father to acknowledge the child. According to the Article 280 of Civil Code, the acknowledgment is to create the civil law relationship with the child, and its father or mother. After the acknowledgement, you may draw anything between the two of them. You may establish a child support, parenting and visitation. The child is also entitled to use your family name. He/she might be able to claim as your heir in the inheritance matters.

Furthermore, the amended Article 43 (1) imposed that a claim made in order to acknowledge the child and his father must be supported with a scientific evidence, like DNA test, as well as two witness that willing to take a stand at the court of law. The acknowledgment of an out of wedlock child must be approved by the court of law. The court verdict must shows the origin of the child, the acknowledgment made by the father, and the consent by the biological mother. This is an integrated paperworks. 

The idea to come-up with the amended Article 43 (1) is to provide legal protection for the child born out of wedlock. It is the duty of the state to issue a document regarding the origin of the child with full names of the parents and printed on a birth certificate. 

My name is Asep Wijaya. Thank you for reading my posts.

****

Our thanks to Asep Wijaya, Managing Director of Wijaya & Co for sharing this information with us!
 

Disclaimer:

The above is provided for informational purposes only and is NOT to be relied upon as legal advice. This information is not a substitute for the advice of an attorney and should not be construed as a solicitation. No attorney-client relationship is established by use of information found within this article nor in this website.

Guardianship of a child in Indonesia is a challenging issues. Not only this is the most important part in family and matrimonial law practice, such as adoption cases, divorce cases, and custody disputes. It also plays substantial role in general civil law, such as how a judge determine a child's guardian in representing him/her in all of her legal affairs. Article 47 of 1974 Marriage Law stipulated that children under 18 years old or have never been married, are under their parent’s authority. The parent represent them in and outside of the court room. The parental authority may be revoked by the court or may also be removed voluntarily and assigned to other individual. Parental authority is the term set-out in the laws in Indonesia. It also known as Child Custody. Different terms but discussing the same thing in common. The terms have a very broad meaning: representing the child inside or outside of the court room. This include the whole legal matters involving the child's life. 

When parent is no longer in the position to perform his/her job, other people, preferably family members may replace them as a guardian of the child. The guardianship of the child may voluntarily appointed by the parent. The person may accept it or he/she may refuse it. Being a parent indeed is not an easy job. So, you're excused if you think you won't be able to do it properly. Child Protection Law of 2002 stipulates that in the event of a parent is absent, or unknown, or for some reasons unable to perform his/her duty and responsibility, the job is transferable to other family member. A guardian may be appointed to do the job. They must be same blood family up to three degrees upline, such as grand father, grand mother. They can also be three level down line.

The laws further imposed how a guardian must meet criterias. He/she must at least 18 years of age, physically and emotionally healthy, fair, honest and having a good behavior. Other family members must also be supply their opinions about how he/she may be able to perform his/her duty as the child’s guardian. They also have the responsibility to choose the right guardian because everybody knows everybody. This is the beauty of family emotional bonding.

At Wijaya & Co, we handled cases like this: transferring the children guardianship from their parents to their grand mother. Both of them are busy with their works and the grand mother lives in a different country. The guardianship order serves as an immigration clearance as well that allow the grand mother to have parental rights in regards to the furnishing of immigration paperworks. She represents the children and have the legal power to decide on the parent’s behalf, as if having someone to trust to take care of your children, legally.

I am Asep Wijaya. Thank you for reading my posts.

****

Our thanks to Asep Wijaya, Managing Director of Wijaya & Co for sharing this information with us!
 

Disclaimer:

The above is provided for informational purposes only and is NOT to be relied upon as legal advice. This information is not a substitute for the advice of an attorney and should not be construed as a solicitation. No attorney-client relationship is established by use of information found within this article nor in this website.

Monday, 05 March 2018 10:33

Child Born Out of Wedlock in Indonesia

Child born out of wedlock in Indonesia has legal relationship with its biological mother and her family only. This principle is reflected on the child's birth certificate. It means the birth certificate of a child born out of legal wedlock cannot include the name of its father. That was ancient regulation before we have a breakthrough from the Constitutional Court. Nowadays, children born out of wedlock has legal relationship with the acclaimed biological father. The claims must be supported with the scientific evidence such as DNA test, among others.

Article 43 (1) of 1974 Marriage Law has been recently amended to include the biological father as parent of the child born out of wedlock. This ruling was meant to protect the child’s basic right. Just because we recognize the legal relationship between the father and his child born out of wedlock, it doesn’t mean to attack the legal marriage and its legitimate children. The relationship does not automatically entitles the child to the legal rights as if it was born into the legal marriage. Nevertheless, it may be the basis to create "the bridge" between the acclaimed father and the child in regard to the child's rights in claiming child supports, education, inheritance, etc. Well, at least you need to start somewhere, right? 

The legal proceedings under the amended Article 43 (1) of the Marriage Law is very useful for the children born outside of the legal marriage. This is because they can have a birth certificate with complete names of the parents. Both names of the father and mother printed on its birth certificate. This is a milestone to a new world of opportunities for them. This is similar to child legalization proceeding. Without the proceeding, the child may entitle to a birth certificate with mother’s name only. They said our legal system legally bastardizing them. They won't be, as long as you as the father would like to recognize them. It's your flesh and blood anyway. So, give them what they need: the birth certificate with the full names of the parents.

The best thing about this, it does not have to come with the marriage of the parents. Do I mention something about tying the know at some point? No. It's up to you! Sometimes, messy things between the two of you doesn't have to make your "champ" suffers. All you need is to talk to each other, sit down in the same table with your Indonesian lawyer and get the ball rolling. Well, I am not the guy who against the spiritual and emotional bonds like they do have in those married couples. What's important is the father's acknowledgment. It does really matters to your child. What a simplified legal system, huh? We make things simple. It's up to you to keep it simple, or the otherwise. All you have to do is to supply the evidence. This is the most convenient way, considering the absence of your marriage certificate.

Well, let me completely be honest with you. I understand that you may not be able to supply the marriage certificate due to various reasons. You did perform the marriage, but it may not performed properly according to the marriage regulation. It's called unregistered marriage. In Indonesia, some called it "Nikah Siri." Or, you never get marry before and the child conceived out of the adulterous relationship. A marriage is one thing, and a child is another thing. I am not going to cast a stone at you. You don't have to do it if the marriage is not a scenario. So, you can do this proceeding under the Article 43 (1) of the Marriage Law without getting marry first.

My name is Asep Wijaya. Thank you for reading my posts.

****

Our thanks to Asep Wijaya, Managing Director of Wijaya & Co for sharing this information with us!
 

Disclaimer:

The above is provided for informational purposes only and is NOT to be relied upon as legal advice. This information is not a substitute for the advice of an attorney and should not be construed as a solicitation. No attorney-client relationship is established by use of information found within this article nor in this website.

Monday, 26 February 2018 10:22

Child Custody & Maintenance in Indonesia

Custody and maintenance of children, like other family matters in Indonesia such as divorce, and inheritance; is governed by religious affiliation of the respective spouses. Some of you may find it absurd, but this relates to the belief that religion plays an important role in the family environment.

Child Custody for Moslem

The questions regarding who is entitled to custody or maintenance of children in the event of a divorce between a husband and wife who are Moslems, are subject to the provisions of the Compilation of Islamic Law, and also subject to the principles contained in the Religion of Islam. In the event of divorce, the maintenance of children who have not yet mumayyiz(under 12 year old) is their mother’s. In the case of mothers has died, then the position of woman as the holder of the rights can be replaced by the following persons: a). the women in a straight line upward from the mother, b). father, c). the women in a straight line upwards of the father; d). sister of the child concerned; or e). Blood relatives of women by the side line of the father. So, under normal circumstances, the law prioritizes custody to the mother of the child. Please take a note, under normal circumstances! If you think your particular situations are not even close, please continue reading.

For children who already mumayyiz, it is up to the child to choose between his father or mother as the holder of the right of maintenance. Nevertheless, the father of the child has the responsibility to provide child support according to his ability regardless who holds the custody.  He should provide child support at least until the child is able to take care of him/herself or have aged 21 years. This provision relates to the principle in Islam that the father is the bread-maker in the family. The fact that in this modern world where women are also working and making good career, it does not forbid the obligation of a father to provide the child support. Something we must realize is that other than as husband and wife, we all have other capacity that is as father and mother for children born in our marriage.

Child Custody for Non-Moslem

Child custody and maintenance for Non-Moslem is applicable for children under the age of 18 years old or unmarried. In case of divorce to both parents, the provision of child custody and maintenance can be found in 1974 Marriage Law, Child Protection Law, and Indonesia’s Civil Code.

The 1974 Marriage Law stipulates that in case of divorce, both parents are still obliged to maintain and educate their children until the child marries or able to support themselves. In the event of disputes, they are still obliged to maintain and educate their children until the child marries or able to support themselves. A district court may enter into a verdict on the disputes. The provision sends a message that child custody and maintenance in the event of divorce is still a part of the obligations and responsibilities of spouses. Furthermore, Child Protection Law provides that parents are obliged and responsible for caring, nurturing, educating, and protecting children, fostering the children in accordance with their abilities, talents, and interests, and should prevent the occurrence of early marriage.

The Civil Code stipulates that the legal consequences of a divorce may end the parental authority (ouderlijke macht) and turns into guardianship (voogdij). When the marriage dissolved by the court, there should also be regulated on the guardianship of the underage children. The guardianship shall be determined after the judge hears family from both parents with close relationship with the child.  Determination guardian also may be reviewed by a judge at the request of the father or the mother based on changing circumstances.

How Can You Lose the Custody?

Being a holder of child custody and maintenance is not permanent. A father or a mother could lose child custody and maintenance in the event he/she cannot guarantee the child’s physical and spiritual safety.

If You’re Moslem

At the request of child’s relatives concerned, the religious court may transfer the custody rights to other relatives who have rights of custody as well. Although child custody is a right of a mother, but sometime she could lose the rights due to special factors. There are factors that can impede her rights in obtaining child custody, among others, are:

  1. Ar-Riqqu. Literally, it means that the person concerned has status as a slave. I believe this is no longer applicable as we recognized equal status to all human being. Nevertheless, this can be further interpreted that the person has no freedom at her will. Don’t get me wrong! For example, you are working abroad and you cannot attend the child on daily basis in Indonesia. You need help from your family in Indonesia to take care of the child. On the other hand, your husband resides in Indonesia. Instead of giving the custody to you as the mother of the child, or giving a way the custody to wife’s parent; the father of the child will prevail and shall be the most appropriate parent to hold the custody and maintenance of the child.
  2. The Fasiq. She conducts immoral behaviors such as having an affair with other man, or even worse, committing adultery. Can we trust her with the responsibility of parenting?  When the court found her committing adultery, she will no longer entitle to child custody. How come? If she still has the custody, she will educate the child in accordance with her bad habits. Remember, our children learning by examples of their parents. The Islamic Law finds that the Fasiq will give negative impact to the children.
  3. The Kafir, means Non-Moslem person. The Islamic Law finds that they should not be entrusted with the parenting right of a Moslem child. Furthermore, the Islamic Law finds that they have the possibility in deceiving the child and removing it from the religious beliefs of Islam.
  4. A woman re-married with another man. On the issues of parenting, a mother holds primary rights to child custody and maintenance. However, the right will be automatically revoked when she married to another man with no family relationship with the child (ajnabi). On the other hand, if she married to a man with ties of kinship with the child, the mother custody is not lost.  The revocation of the custody right shall be on the ground of religious court’s order.  In this particular situation, I would like to refer to the Hadits of Prophet of Muhammad:

أَنْتِ أَحَقُّ بِهِ مَا لَمْ تَنْكِحِي

You have more right to nurture him/her as long as you are not married.”

When the impediment factors are disappearing, for example the mother divorced again, she will get her custody right back. Some women don’t know about these rules when they got divorce. When our firm work for a case in a religious court in Bali, we advised our client to resign from her employment abroad to avoid her losing the custody. Nevertheless, such decision sometimes cannot always be accepted by everyone. Having a custody means that you have a responsibility to raise the child. When you and your ex do not cooperate, you will face difficulties in doing the job. After all, it’s not easy being a single parent.

If You’re Non-Moslem

Every child has the right to be taken care of by their parents, unless there is a reason and/or valid legal rules indicate that the separation with the parent is in the best interests of the child and should be taken as the final consideration. However, court decisions remain to decide custody of parents against children when one of their parents behave poorly and neglect their obligations towards the child. Nevertheless, someone who holds child custody and maintenance must be of the same religious affiliation with the child. The existence of this provision will ensure the parent will provide religious education for the child properly.

The Child Protection Law further stipulates that parental authority of one or both parents may be revoked at the request of the other parent or adult siblings or authorized officer based on the court verdict due to neglecting the duty towards the child and behave badly. Let me be more specific on the definition of other parent. It can be either grandmother of the child from the father’s line, grandfather of the child from the mother’s line, and the child’s family in straight line upward (grandfather or grandmother of the child). The first one is being prioritized in the event both parents are being revoked by the court.

In view of the above and regardless who have the custody, I believe you and your ex must work together in raising the child. Both of you still have obligations and responsibilities even if you’re not married anymore. Set aside the ego, and work side by side for your flesh and blood’s upbringing. I know it is easier said than done, but it is worth to try.

Well, I hope you get the whole picture about this issue and most important is that you have enough access to the legal system that protects your rights.  At Wijaya & Co, we are helping people with their legal issues and assisting them to have access to the legal system in Indonesia. This information is to help them to gain the access and please feel free to forward it to others who might need the information.

I am Asep Wijaya. Thank you for visiting my blog, and reading my posts.
 
****
 
Our thanks to Asep Wijaya, Managing Director of Wijaya & Co for sharing this information with us!
 

Disclaimer:

The above is provided for informational purposes only and is NOT to be relied upon as legal advice. This information is not a substitute for the advice of an attorney and should not be construed as a solicitation. No attorney-client relationship is established by use of information found within this article nor in this website.

Monday, 19 February 2018 10:15

Out of Wedlock Child

The child was born out of wedlock, she/he has no legal relationship with you as the father. Only with her/his mother and her family. In order to establish legal relationship between the child and you, you need first to acknowledge the child by entering into a Paternity Affidavit. Marrying the child’s mother is a benefit for the case. In order to legalize the child, you must acknowledge the child as your flesh and blood, and get the mother to consent it. A DNA test is a statutory requirements and therefore is highly recommended.  Furthermore, you need to supply supporting documents such as a. Copy of your passport,  and KITAS, if applicable; b. Copy of your wife's KTP, family card (so called “Kartu Keluarga), and copy of your wife’s birth certificate; c. Child's birth certificate; d. Your marriage certificate.
 
In order to give you a big picture of the case, you're stuck between the two legal system for Moslem and Non Moslem in Indonesia. Let me explain this to you. Private law in Indonesia has two major system: Moslem and Non Moslem. For Moslem individual, their private laws are mainly subject to Islamic Compilation Law, and also 1974 Marriage Law. Their marriage registered with KUA, but the birth of the child registered at Civil Registry. Their divorce processed at Religious Court. For Moslems, they don't recognized out of wedlock child. On the other hand, Non-Moslem individuals, their private laws are mainly subject to Civil Code, and some national enacted laws such as 1974 Marriage Law. Their marriage registered with Civil Registry. The birth of the child registered at the Civil Registry as well. Their divorce processed at a district court. For Non-Moslems, they recognized out of wedlock child. They legalize the child born out of wedlock within the marriage of the parents, if the marriage is a scenario. If the marriage was not a scenario, they recognized child acknowledgment. The father acknowledge the child as his flesh and blood, and the mother consent it. 
 
You see why you're hitting the block? You are in between of two legal systems of private laws. The correct way to solve the case is to get marriage legalization. But the court rarely approve that because they think marriage legalization entertains bigamy in Indonesia. Therefore, the only legal way to solve this issue is by getting child legalization. This is not only about legalizing what the facts are. This is about getting  you legalized as the couple married in Moslem, and have the baby legalized and getting your name on the birth certificate even though he/she was born before the marriage of the parents.
 
I hope you've got the whole big picture of the limbo where you're stuck in. The legal systems are the implementations of Indonesia as the most Moslems populous country, and its accommodation of other individuals with different religions. The Indonesian laws are the mirror of our people and its varieties.
 
I am Asep Wijaya. Thank you for visiting my blog, and reading my posts.
 
****
 
Our thanks to Asep Wijaya, Managing Director of Wijaya & Co for sharing this information with us!
 
Disclaimer:

The above is provided for informational purposes only and is NOT to be relied upon as legal advice. This information is not a substitute for the advice of an attorney and should not be construed as a solicitation. No attorney-client relationship is established by use of information found within this article nor in this website.

Monday, 19 February 2018 09:34

Foreign Property Ownership

For Mixed-Marriage Couples in Indonesia

Pre-word

Foreigners are not allowed to own property in Indonesia.  However, although foreigners will not be able to own freehold (Hak Milik) property, several Government Regulations issued in 1996 allow foreigners to hold  a Right of Use (Hak Pakai) which valid for 25 years with the possibility of another 25 years extension.

However, as the validity of a Right of Use title is limited to a certain period and it is not possible to a mortgage a Right of Use, this is not comparable to freehold or ownership in perpetuity. Holding a Right of Use offers the foreign investor protection for a certain period, but this title seems not well suited for long-term investment purposes.

2 (Two) Possible Solutions

In order to own the property in Indonesia, there are 2 (two) possible solutions for foreigners i.e.:

Using the Nominee

The nominee sign several documents with the foreigner i.e.: a) A Loan Agreement that acknowledges the foreigner has lent to the nominee the purchase price of the property; b) A Right of Use Agreement that allows the foreigner to use the property; c) A Statement Letter stating that the nominee acknowledges the loan from foreigner and intention to own the land; d) Power of Attorney. This is an irrevocable power of attorney giving the foreigner complete authority to sell, mortgage, lease or otherwise deal in the property.

Using the Foreign Company (so called PMA)

Under the new investment law number 25 of 2007, simplified services and/or permission of land titles may be granted and extended all at once in advance, and is renewable at the investor's request for the following:

  1. Right to Cultivate (Hak Guna Usaha) may be granted for a period of 95 (ninety-five) years by being granted and extended all at once in advance for a period of 60 (sixty) years, and renewable for a period of 35 (thirty-five) years;
  2. Right to Buld (Hak Guna Bangunan) may be granted for a period of 80 (eighty) years by being granted and extended all at once in advance for a period of 50 (fifty) years, and renewable for a period of 30 (thirty) years;
  3. Right to Use (Hak Pakai) may be granted for a period of 70 (seventy) years by being granted and extended all at once in advance for a period of 45 (forty-five) years, and renewable for a period of 25 (twenty-five) years;

Land titles as intended above may be granted and extended all at one in advance for the following investment activities, inter alia:

  1. an investment that is made for a long term and linked to structured changes in the Indonesian economy aimed at improving competitiveness;
  2. an investment with an investment risk level that requires a long-term return on capital based on the types activities carried out;
  3. investments that need no large areas;
  4. investments with the state land titles; and
  5. investment that do not undermine a sense of public justice and does not harm the public interest.

A land title is renewable upon evaluation that the land remains in good use and cultivation conforming to the conditions, nature, and purpose the title is granted.

I am Asep Wijaya. Thank you for visiting my blog, and reading my posts.

****

Our thanks to Asep Wijaya, Managing Director of Wijaya & Co for sharing this information with us!
 

Disclaimer:

The above is provided for informational purposes only and is NOT to be relied upon as legal advice. This information is not a substitute for the advice of an attorney and should not be construed as a solicitation. No attorney-client relationship is established by use of information found within this article nor in this website.

Friday, 17 November 2017 11:06

Property Division in the Course of Marriage

Marriage is a step that will surely be passed by every human being, male and female. The nature of marriage under applicable Indonesia’s 1974 Marriage Law stated that Marriage is the inner and outer bond between one man and one women as the husband and wife with the intention of forming a happy and eternal family (household). Morevoer, in accordance to Article 2 of Compilation of Islamic Law, marriage is a very strong contract to obey God’s commands and execute its worship. Marriage sparked quite much legal implications, one of which appears as properties, which arise separation or joint marital property. According to The Great Dictionary of the Indonesian Language of the Language Center (Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia Pusat Bahasa), joint marital property is defined as the goods in the form of money and so that becomes property used or utilized together. The terms of joint marital property in our Indonesian community is also popularly known as Gono Gini which derives from Gana-Gini describes by the Great Dictionary of the Indonesian Language as treasures collected over the rights to settle down so that it becomes the the rights of both the husband and wife. The brief explanation of Basic laws and regulations concerning joint marital property would refer to the laws and regulations will be elaborate on next paragraph as follows.
 
Indonesia’s 1974 Marriage Law
  1. Innate Treasures (personal property). Article 35 paragraph 2 of Law No. 1 1974 on Marriage stipulates that property brought into the marriage by the husband and the wife respectively and property acquired by either of them as a gif or inheritance shall remain under their respective control, unless otherwise decided between the parties. That means, if each party obtaining their own goods and are brought into the marriage, remains under the authority of each party.
  2. Joint marital property. In Article 35 paragraph 1 of Indonesia’s 1974 Marriage Law stipulates that Property acquired during marriage shall become joint marital property. the joint marital property here is property acquired by each and every spouse in matrimony for the interest of family. Each party can use the property along with the consent of his or her spouse.
  3. Gift or Inheritance. Let us see again the Article 35 paragraph 1 of Indonesia’s 1974 Marriage Law. It stipulates that common property acquired by each of the spouse as a gift or inheritance shall remain under their respective control. Property acquired during the matrimony becomes joint marital property, and an innate property of each spouse or property obtained by each party as a gift or inheritence is under the authority of each party so long as the parties don’t establish other conditions.
Marital Property in Terms of Islamic Law Compilation
 
In Islamic law, both marriage and divorce are contingent upon the fulfilment of transfers of property, usually from husband to wife. However, Islamic law does not acknowledge the concept of joint martial property, instead vesting rights for any property brought to or produced in marriage with the individual. As Islamic law does not recognize joint marital property, men and women are deemed to have equal rights to own and dispose of their porperty, without requiring the permission of the other spouse. Nonetheless, Islamic law acknowledges partnerships (syirkah) so it considered possible to conceptualize marital property produced through joint effort as partnership property. There is also an obligations from muslim husbands concerning on properties to their wifes. The husband has the right to take care of his wife’s assets and obliged to maintain and preserve the assets.
  1. Inheritence. Islam gives equal rights to men and women. Both were created by God and are of equal spiritual worth. And so in terms of marital property, men and womeh have equal rights. Islamic legal materials generally support women’s right to acquire, hold, use, administer and dispose of property. However, based on teaching of Islam, men have responsibilites that are heavier than women. In terms of Inheritence, men  get a larger share than women as stipulated in the surah An-Nisa verse 11: .”Allah commands you as regards your children’s (inheritance); to the male, a portion equal to that of two females; if (there are) only daughters, two or more, their share is two thirds of the inheritance; if only one, her share is half.”
  2. Mahar (dowry). For the marriage, grooms must provide a gift to the bride (mahar). The provisions of Article 30 of Compilation of Islamic Law states that the prospective groomis required to pay a dowry (mahar) to the bride that number, shape, and type agreed upon by both parties. Furthermore, it stipulates that dowry determination is based on the principles of ease and simplicity advocated by Islam. While dowry is given directly to the prospective bride and it become her personal rights ever since. It can be concluded that the mandatory provision of a dowry is given and expressed by a husband to his future wife in a marriage ceremony which is a sign of their approval and willingness to live as husband and wife. The form can be anything as long as it has value.
  3. Grants, or  (hibah) or gifts are given goods that have a social function in people’s lives either it is given by individuals or institutions. The grant is given by  a person to the other when he / she still alive. The implementation of division of grants is usually done at the time the testator still alive. This means that the person granted posesses full rights to the property, but it could also be acquired into a joint marital property with the consent of both parties.
  4. Properties acquired as the results of own’s effort. Marital property can usually be separated into four groups as follows. Merely: goods acquired by spouses from inheritence or bequesst of relatives of each party and were brought into the marriage, goods acquired during marriage belongs to the husband and wife as the joint marital property, goods obtained by each party for each seles before or during marriage, and  items awarded to the husband and wife at the time of marriage. In terms of joint marital property, the husband and wife can commingle their properties. In islam, it is known as Syirkah or mixing assets acquired by each spouses during marriage, or their joing efforts. This also applies to the assets derived from inheritance, gifts, and grants. All of which may remain as the property either acquired before marriage or after marriage with the consent of each spouses.
Martial Property in Private International Law
 
Private International Law contains three important streams of the marital property, namely:
  1. The establishment who sees marriage property law, for example, an immovable goods belongs to the status reel. There is a distinction between movable and immovable. The principle of lex rei sitae applied to the immovable  objects, while the movable object is placed under their place of domicile.
  2. the establishment that a marrital property law belongs to the field of personal status.
  3. Marital property law is a contract between husband and wife, thus the will of both parties will determined what kind of law to be used. The parties can make a prenuptial agreement and in this case, they will used the law that they have chosen.
Arrest 1929 which is a decision of Hooge Raad in Netherlands in 1929 is considered as the basis of marital property law in Private International Law. This Arrest stipulates that marital properties including personal status, ia s unity, and the law of marital property can not be changed.
 
Divsion of marital property under Indonesia’s 1974 Marriage Law
 
Article 37 of Indonesia’s 1974 Marriage Law which contains provisions concerning joint property does not explicitly stipulates the division of property for each spouses if the marriage is ended whether it is by divorce or ended because one person dies. The article however stipulates, if the marriage is ended because of divorce, the joint marital property will be governed by the law applicable to each divorce parties. It is not described about provisions on the arrangement regarding the division of joint martial property if it is associated with filing a divorce petition. The arrangements regarding on the division of marital joint property will be governed by the law applicable to the parties, for example, the Moslems will surely apply to the Religious couort. In this case, the applicable law would certainly be Compilation of Islamic Law.
 
The division of marital property according to Compilation of Islamic Law
 
In the Compilation of Islamic Law, the division of joint marital property governed by Article 96 and 97. Those articles stipulates about the division of joint martial property for the spouses if the marriage ends, whether by divorce or the death of another party. Each will get half of the joint property.  It is said that:
(1) If the marriage is ended because one person dies, then the property that constitutes common property (Shared Property) falls to the party that lives longer.
( 2 ) the division of joint property for a husband or wife or husband who lost should be deferred until there is certainty that the ultimate death or die in the law on the basis of religious court decisions
whereas Article 97 stipulates that widow or widower who divorced entitled to one-half of the joint property to the extent so long as the parties don’t establish other conditions. It can be concluded that the division of joint marital property because of divorce can be done directly between the former husband and wife, with each spouse entitled to one-half. But this provision does not apply when there is prenuptial agreement held by both parties.
 
Prenuptial Agreement
 
For many of us there is a gap between the marriage we have and the marriage we thought we would have. Disputes around property division in the course of marriage could be prevent by making a prenuptial agreement. It could brings altogehter a positive impact on relationship breakdown. As we have discussed earlier, Indonesia’s 1974 Marriage Law has given the opprotunity for those who want to set it up. Prenuptial agreement is one way to minimize the divorce because of the provisions in it are burdened with obligations that will create one of the parties to reconsider filing for divorce. Prenuptial agreements can also be used as a means to provide legal protection to the property of the spouses. The parties could determine whether a prenuptial agreement would regulates the separation of property in marriage or sets a joint marital property or whatever they want. The prenuptial agreement is faciliaed in Indnesia and can be upheld in court. The laws governing prenuptial agreements (prenup) stipulate that the agreement should be made prior to marriage. The legal grounds for the prenup come from severalapplicable Indonesian laws, including: Civil Code, 1974 Marriage Law, and Compilation of Islamic Law, as follows:
  1. Article 47 (1) of Compilation of Islamic Law Article stipulates similar provision with the Marriage Law: “At the time of or before the marriage took place, the bride and groom may enter into an agreement approved by the Registrar of Marriage regarding the management of community property.”
  2. The 1974 Marriage Law in Article 29(1) stipulates that: “At the time of or before the marriage took place, with the mutual consent of both parties, they may enter into an agreement approved by the Civil Registrar of marriage, after which it shall also apply to third parties as long as it involves them as well.” Another provision stipulated in the marriage law is that the agreement cannot be amended during marriage, except upon approval of both parties and cannot cause disadvantage to any third party. This stipulation comes from Article 29(4) in the Marriage Law.
  3. Article 199 of the Civil Code stipulates that: “From the commencing of a marriage, there shall exist by law, community property between the spouses to the extent that no other stipulations have been made in the prenuptial agreement.”
The Law in Indonesia does not provide a ready-made framework for a prenuptial agreement. One has to find a lawyer to help them define their particular needs of the husband and wife. Naturally, both parties are free to determine the provisions of the prenuptial agreements as long as it does not abide the law and morality of public.
 

I am Asep Wijaya. Thank you for visiting my blog, and reading my posts.

****

Our thanks to Asep Wijaya, Managing Director of Wijaya & Co for sharing this information with us!
 

Disclaimer:

The above is provided for informational purposes only and is NOT to be relied upon as legal advice. This information is not a substitute for the advice of an attorney and should not be construed as a solicitation. No attorney-client relationship is established by use of information found within this article nor in this website.

 
Friday, 17 November 2017 10:11

Indonesian Citizenship for Your Mixed-Child

Double Citizenship under the New Law: Acquiring Indonesian Citizenship for Child Born in the Mixed-Marriage

General Overview

The new Indonesian citizenship law considered as landmark on citizenship. It provides for, among others, children from mixed-marriage to have dual citizenship until they reach 18 years of age or more when they have to choose one citizenship, either Indonesian or the other.

Under this new-enacted law, the child does not automatically lose his or her Indonesian status. Indonesian women are not automatically follow their husband's citizenship status and can be sponsor for their husband to turn status to Indonesian citizens.

The newly-enacted citizenship law gives children of mixed-marriages with Indonesian mothers the rights to dual citizenship until they are 18 years old. At the age of 18, they can choose whether to stay Indonesian citizens or follow their foreign father's citizenship. They will be then given additional three more years to decide on which nationality to choose.

Our Indonesian law firm has assisted many foreign clients to obtain Indonesia's dual citizenship for their children.  Obtaining Indonesia's dual citizenship for your child is NOT just applying for a new passport, particularly for the child born before the new citizenship law enacted. There are certain proceedings that must be completed before your child entitle to Indonesia's dual citizenship.

Child Eligibility

The Decree of Ministry of Law and Human Rights defines child entitles to Indonesian citizenship, with the following categories:

  1. Child born in a legal wedlock of an Indonesian father and alien mother;
  2. Child born in a legal wedlock of an alien father and Indonesian mother;
  3. Child born out of wedlock of an alien mother acknowledged by the Indonesian father and such acknowledgement must be done before the child reaches 18 years of age or unmarried;
  4. Child born outside the territory of Republic of Indonesia of an Indonesian parent and given by the local citizenship laws granted such citizenship to the child. It means that the country where the child was born holds ius sanguinis principles that the citizenship of the child follows the parent;
  5. Child of an Indonesian citizen born out of legal wedlock, under age of 18, and unmarried legally acknowledged by the alien father;
  6. Child of an Indonesian parent under the age of 5 (five) legally adopted by the foreigner based on a court decree.

The eligible children must be aged below 18 years old or unmarried, otherwise they  must go with normal naturalization process in order to obtain the Indonesian citizenship.

Child Born Before Aug. 01, 2006

Child born before Aug. 01, 2006 is not automatically entile to double citizenship. The citizenship of Indonesia can be obtained through registration by submitting application forms. The application to obtain Indonesian citizenship for your child must be made in writing  using Bahasa Indonesia, on paper affixed with sufficient duty stamp.

The Time Frame

Although the period of time has been set in the Ministry's Decree that each application can be approved within approximately 100 days (subject to receipt  of all completed application), the length of time varies  from case to case according to its circumstances. It usually approved within approximately 3 (three) up to 4 (four) months.

The time it takes each district office to process the case varies. Some cases are delayed because the applicant does not follow instructions carefully or supply incomplete information. It is important to give correct addresses and telephone numbers.

Immigration Facility

Upon receipt of the Ministry's decree, you need to report in writing to local immigration office having jurisdiction over your child's residence. Also, bring your child's foreign passport and his/her stay permit.

The immigration will in turn:

  1. Revoke your child's stay permit;
  2. Upon your request, they will issue an Indonesian passport;
  3. Put an immigration stamp/chop in the endorsement page of your child's Indonesian passport;
  4. Issue an affidavit statement to obtain immigration facility, if your child possesses a foreign passport.

Closing Date

The registration must be made within 4 (four) year since the law enacted: August 01, 2010.

Child Born On or After August 01, 2006

The child born on or after August 01, 2006 is automatically entile to an Indonesian citizenship. You can easily register him/her at the local immigration office having jurisdiction over your child's residence and entitle to an Indonesian passport. They will put an endorsement on your child's Indonesian passport to obtain an immigration facility. In the event that your child already possess a foreign passport, the immigration office will issue an affidavit statement for you to entitle to an immigration facility.

Immigration Facility for Dual-Citizenship Child

The child with one passport (foreign passport) will no longer require to obtain a visa, stay permit, or re-entry permit. For dual passport child,  he/she is obliged to use only one passport to entry and exit Indonesia.

What if You're not Married

In the event you're not married, the registration procedures for your child are still the same. It just, you have to go through particular proceedings, before you can submit your application. You need to get child's acknowledgment certificate from civil registry office, and submit the petition for legalizing the child to the local district court to get a court decree. These two documents are required for registering your child's citizenship with the local office of Department of Law and Human Rights.

Our thanks to Asep A. Wijaya, Managing Director of Wijaya & Co for sharing this information with us!

 

Disclaimer:

The above is provided for informational purposes only and is NOT to be relied upon as legal advice. This information is not a substitute for the advice of an attorney and should not be construed as a solicitation. No attorney-client relationship is established by use of information found within this article nor in this website.

Friday, 17 November 2017 10:10

Children Born Out of Wedlock

Children born outside of marriage are declared as illegitimate on their birth certificates under Indonesia's 1974 Marriage Law. In Indonesian, the term illegitimate is known as ''Anak Luar Kawin'' referring to the child born outside the marriage of the two parents. As such, these children do not have any legal claim against their biological fathers, as the identity of the father is not noted on the birth certificate.

This article will hopefully be useful for parents who are experiencing legal problems with their children born out of wedlock in Indonesia and wish to obtain legal recognition for their children.

Definition

An ''out of wedlock'' child is a child born outside of a marriage between the woman who is giving birth to the child with a man who caused her pregnancy. The legal parentage of the child may or may not be admitted by the father.

Parentage Acknowledged by the Father

A child born out of wedlock shall have civil law relations only with his/her mother. The child does not automatically have a legal parental relationship with the father. To establish that legal relationship with the father, Indonesian law requires an admission, referred to as ''pengakuan'', where the father admits that the child is in fact his child. The out of wedlock child already has a civil law relationship with the mother who is giving birth to the child. This grants a family relationship, with its legal consequences including inheritance rights, to the mother of the child (only). An admission of the parentage by the father will not create a family relationship between the child with his/her father's family.

Out of Wedlock Legalization

Legalization is the next step towards recognizing parentage of an out of wedlock child. The father that intends to legalize the child's birth must legally marry the child's mother. The legalization will grant family relationship between the child with her/his parent's and their families that have acknowledged the child's parentage.

Recorded at Civil Registry Office

The admission of out of wedlock child is not a hush-hush proceeding. It should be registered with the Civil Registry by recording the child's birth in the birth certificate registry or into the parent's marriage certificates (which will then grant legalization) or in a separate deed of civil registry or even written in a notary deed.

Once the parents are legally married and the birth is registered at the Civil Registry Office, the child's parentage is legally recognized by the Indonesian government. A new birth certificate, can be issued by the civil registry office, will have the father's name on it.

Our thanks to Asep A. Wijaya, Managing Director of Wijaya & Co for sharing this information with us!

 

Disclaimer:

The above is provided for informational purposes only and is NOT to be relied upon as legal advice. This information is not a substitute for the advice of an attorney and should not be construed as a solicitation. No attorney-client relationship is established by use of information found within this article nor in this website.

Friday, 17 November 2017 09:48

Step Child Adoption

Step child adoption is pretty special in Indonesia. Not only because this is happening within a marriage, but this is also about sharing the custody of a child between you as the step  parent and your spouse as the custody holder. It should not remove your spouse’s custody right and put it on you as the step parent. It’s more like making your spouse shares the wonder of being a parent with you as if the child was born within your marriage. Both of you will be sharing parental wonders of life changing experience in virtue of a court decree. 

Adopting your step child in Indonesia is a special adoption proceedings because it takes place within a marriage between Step Parent and Biological Parent. Adopting your spouse’s child, sometimes referred to as a step child adoption, or step parent adoption,  can make your family feel connected. When a step parent adopts his spouse’s child, he becomes responsible for the child both legally and financially in addition to forming emotional bond.

You need to be very careful with your application. There are many aspects in relation with the step child adoption in Indonesia, including delicate issues like inheritance, etc. You need to have an experienced legal representation with solid legal memorandum.  It looks easy, but it's slippery. The proceedings might end-up with failure without any substantial knowledge and experience in handling similar cases. If the court were to reject your petition of step-child adoption, you need to get it appealed to the higher court, which makes it even more difficult.

Wijaya & Co has succeeded in many proceedings of step child adoption cases in Indonesia, both for Indonesian couples, and IndDivorce Laonesian mixed-marriage couples. Our Indonesia lawyers have presented the similar cases with confident supported by hand-picked legal grounds, successful case precedence to help the court examine your case, witnesses briefed to support the case, and strong legal opinion of why your family needs to have the case a success.

Consider the following issues in order to establish legal relationship between you and your step child with the adoption proceeding carried-out bDocumenry our firm:

  1. Experienced family law attorneys;
  2. High success rates in previous similar cases handled by our attorneys that will also contribute to your success;
  3. Conclusive legal binding.

Call or email us in getting your family intact both emotionally and legally with the assistance of dedicated family law practitioners in Indonesia.

Our thanks to Asep A. Wijaya, Managing Director of Wijaya & Co for sharing this information with us!

 

Disclaimer:

The above is provided for informational purposes only and is NOT to be relied upon as legal advice. This information is not a substitute for the advice of an attorney and should not be construed as a solicitation. No attorney-client relationship is established by use of information found within this article nor in this website.

Thursday, 16 November 2017 13:43

Marriage Annulment

Marriage annulment in Indonesia is being conducted in very limited requirements. It must be done within six (6) months since the marriage date. Otherwise, you better go with divorce proceedings. 

You need to have the following reasons for conducting a marriage annulment:

  1. if either spouse in the married couple is still bound in a marriage with another person so that the second marriage cannot be continued,
  2. if the married couple are discovered to have a blood relationship,
  3. if the marriage is conducted without the consent of a guardian or conducted by an invalid guardian,
  4. if the marriage was forced,
  5. and so on pursuant to the law.

A husband or a wife may submit a petition for marriage annulment in the event the marriage was conducted under threat or if, at the time of marriage, there was a misunderstanding or one of the two parties believed that he/she was deceived. If the threat is stopped or the misunderstood party realizes his/her mistake, but within six months they still live as a married couple, and neither of them uses his/her right to annul the marriage, their right will be null and void.

Consider the following issues in order to get an annulment proceeding carried-out by our firm:

  1. Experienced family law attorneys;
  2. High success rates in previous similar cases handled by our attorneys that will also contribute to your success;
  3. Conclusive legal binding;
  4. World-wide legal recognition.

Call or email us in getting the most important part of your life "undo" legally with the assistance of passionate family law practitioners in Indonesia.

Our thanks to Asep A. Wijaya, Managing Director of Wijaya & Co for sharing this information with us!

 

Disclaimer:

The above is provided for informational purposes only and is NOT to be relied upon as legal advice. This information is not a substitute for the advice of an attorney and should not be construed as a solicitation. No attorney-client relationship is established by use of information found within this article nor in this website.

Tagged under
Page 1 of 2

© 2021. All Rights Reserved