Displaying items by tag: Child Born Out of Wedlock


Child born out of wedlock in Indonesia has only legal relationship with its mother, and her family. This situation reflects in the child's birth certificate where you won't see the father's name on it. Without the marriage to the mother, the alleged father will not be able to retrieve custody privilege.

Apart from the marriage, the father may also acknowledge the child in order to create relationship with the child. The father must acknowledge the child as his flesh and blood. According to Article 280 of Civil Code that stipulates the acknowledgement of a natural child creates a civil relationship between that child and his father or mother.

The father's acknowledgement  requires consent from the biological mother, otherwise it won't be legal. This is a statutory requirement as set-out by the prevailing laws. So, you know, it takes two to tango!

On another subject, you need to perform a DNA test too. This is to prove the child is yours, scientifically. The evidence that created according to the science and technology, and shall be required by the court in order to legalize the child born out of wedlock in Indonesia. Make sure you get the right version of DNA test, not the otherwise. The court may not accept your application just because you have incorrect test results.

Under the latest enforcement from the Constitutional Court in Indonesia, a marriage is not required to gain custody privilege of a child. You need to acknowledge it only, and get a court approval before your acknowledgment is legal recognized. Participation of the child's mother is required. If you're not in good terms, you need to talk to her and get her to sign the consent papers. You need to make her happy. This is the only way. Courtesy of nine months pregnancy. 

We have a lot of portfolio in this case. We have high successful rate in getting legalization of child born out of wedlock in Indonesia. Talk to me or email me. I am happy to help. Please contact me should you wish to discuss any further about this.


Our thanks to Mr. Asep Wijaya of Wijaya & Co for sharing this article!

The laws and regulation in Indonesia recognize two (2) types of public and private adoption. Public adoption is applicable in the event, the child was abandoned or neglected by his/her birth family, and raised by a foster care institution managed by the government. The relevant institution in this matter is Ministry of Social Affairs. As for the private adoption, the proceeding takes place between the biological parents and the adopting parents directly. 

Adopting your step child in Indonesia can bring your family close together. You adopt your spouse's child, and legally you are family as if the child was born into your marriage. Your spouse may insist you to do it, but your willingness to do it that keep the marriage intact. You know, things a man do for his wife and his family.  At Wijaya & Co, we always pay attention to details of our client’s case. 

There are some pointers that you need to be aware of regarding the adoption of your step-child, they are:

Consent Required

Consent is required from the biological parents, both the child's father and mother, if the child was born into a legal marriage. In the event the child was born out of wedlock, the consent from the child's mother is a must. The mother has full authority as vested by the Civil Code as related to the child, including when the alleged father wish to acknowledge the child. The authority of the mother solely comes from the Article 284 of the Civil Code: "No acknowledgment of a natural child is, during the lifetime of the mother, notwithstanding that she may be of Indonesian descent or descended from a similar indigenous group, be accepted, if the mother does not approve the acknowledgment." I am not saying that as the alleged father of the child you don't have any right at all, you do. The Constitutional Court confirmed your rights, but you must willing to go the extra mile in order to do that. 

The Best Interest of the Child

The adoption proceeding that you are conducting is promoting the interests and welfare of the child. You must be able to prove this by supplying information that you are doing everything in your power to provide the child. You need to prove that the aim of the adoption is obtaining the welfare and protection of the child. You need to enter into a declaration that you are willing to be responsible for supporting the child on daily basis.

Habitual Residence

Basically, we pride ourselves with our nationality principle that all the Indonesian men are subject to the Indonesian law, wherever they are. This is the basis from the continental legal system. If you were married to a foreigner, your foreign spouse must use the Indonesian partner's jurisdiction and therefore a choice of forum is applicable. You may choose the jurisdiction of your Indonesian spouse through her/his domicile. This can be seen on his/her ID card. Article 14 of Administration of Population Law certifies that the ID card (so called KTP/Kartu Tanda Penduduk) is the official identity of a resident and is valid within the entire territory of the Republic of Indonesia. So, this is your jurisdiction as well as our laws do not require you to have a habitual residence to perform an adoption of your step-child in Indonesia.

Indonesia is not one of the Common Law countries that imposed you to have a minimum contact by having a residency at least for six (6) months. Nevertheless, you need to further consider about the requirements from your country of origin if they require you to have a residency in Indonesia. You may retrieve a spousal dependent visa in order to meet the requirement imposed on you regarding the habitual residence during the adoption proceeding. Please contact me should you wish to discuss any further about this.


Our thanks to Mr. Asep Wijaya of Wijaya & Co for sharing this article!

Guardianship of a child in Indonesia is a challenging issues. Not only this is the most important part in family and matrimonial law practice, such as adoption cases, divorce cases, and custody disputes. It also plays substantial role in general civil law, such as how a judge determine a child's guardian in representing him/her in all of her legal affairs. 

What is Guardianship?

Article 47 of 1974 Marriage Law stipulated that children under 18 years old or have never been married, are under their parent’s authority. The parent represent them in and outside of the court room. The parental authority may be revoked by the court or may also be removed voluntarily and assigned to other individual. Parental authority is the term set-out in the laws in Indonesia.

It also known as Child Custody. Different terms but discussing the same thing in common. The terms have a very broad meaning: representing the child inside or outside of the court room. This include the whole legal matters involving the child's life such as property, inheritance, other legal matters such as immigration, passport and visa application, schooling, etc. You practically a parent already, minus motherhood. This slightly easier as it does not involve emotion, but still with the same chemistry.

It Is Transferable

The good news is, the guardianship of a child is transferrable. When parent is no longer in the position to perform his/her job, other people, preferably family members may replace them as a guardian of the child. The guardianship of the child may voluntarily appointed by the parent. The person may accept it or he/she may refuse it.

Being a parent indeed is not an easy job. It is the most beautiful thing and yet the hardest job in the world. So, you're excused if you think you won't be able to do it properly. Child Protection Law of 2002 stipulates that in the event of a parent is absent, or unknown, or for some reasons unable to perform his/her duty and responsibility, the job is transferable to other family member. A guardian may be appointed to do the job. They must be same blood family to three degrees upline, such as grand father, grand mother. They can also be three level down line.

The Criterias

When you live with a child and it's not yours, and the parents of the child are still alive, and they don't live with the child physically, legally you are his/her guardian. Local government may require you to have a guardianship document because legally you are responsible for his/her wellbeing. You need to do this to avoid any potential abduction charges incurred from the local rules and regulations. Therefore, you must qualify for a guardianship in the event one of the child's parents is an Indonesian citizen. 

The laws further imposed how a guardian must meet criterias. He/she must at least 18 years of age, physically and emotionally healthy, fair, honest and having a good behavior. Other family members must also be required to supply their opinions about how he/she may be able to perform his/her duty as the child’s guardian. They also have the responsibility to choose the right guardian because everybody knows everybody. This is the beauty of family emotional bonding.

It Takes a Village

They said it takes a village to raise a child. Well, I guess they were right. Hillary Clinton once wrote a book with this topic when she was the first lady of the United States. I read a part of it when I was younger. Such as an interesting book indeed! Please contact me if you wish to discuss this issue any further. Not about Hillary's book, but the guardianship issues I mean. I have some successful portfolios that you can use as reference in this field of law. 

At Wijaya & Co, we handled cases like this: transferring the children guardianship from their parents to their grand mother. Both of them are busy with their works and the grand mother lives in a different country. The guardianship order serves as an immigration clearance as well that allow the grand mother to have parental rights in regards to the furnishing of immigration paperworks. She represents the child and have the legal power to decide on the parent’s behalf, as if having someone to trust to take care of your children, legally.


Our thanks to Mr. Asep Wijaya of Wijaya & Co for sharing this article!

The origin of a child is a legal proceeding conducted with the child born out of wedlock in Indonesia. This is to create a relationship between the child and the biological father. It happens when you conceived a child before your marriage legally registered. This may be happen for so many reasons, among others; either of you are not legally divorce when the child was born, you're both legally free to marry but think that the marriage is not for you; or you performed the religious marriage, but not the civil one. So the child comes first, and then the marriage thereafter. By law, the child has only relationship with the mother and her family. You need some extra efforts to establish the connection between the child and its father. The laws in Indonesia has set-out the way forward and it's up to you if you're willing to go the extra mile. Other people have done it, and now it's time for you to do it.

We have Article 43 (1) of Marriage Law certifying that the child has the legal relationship between both the mother, and the father as well as their families. Nevertheless, such claim must be supported with scientific evidence, and other related evidence to prove their blood connection, including civil law relationship with the family of its father. The revised version of this Article has been amended by the Constitutional Court with the verdict number 46/PUU-VIII/2010 on February 17, 2012. In another words, you need to retrieve a DNA test. The results must be 99.9999% that you are not excluded as the father of the child. Take a test of you and the child. They will take your saliva with a tiny cotton bud. It will take less than 30 (thirty) minutes, and then you can call it a day. They will let you know within approximately three (3) weeks. Nervous? You tell me. 

The idea behind the verdict was not only because the marriage between the biological mother and the man that gets her pregnant, but also because the blood connection between the child and the alleged father. Apart from the marriage between the two of them, the child must be legally protected. Therefore, the birth of your child must be reported to the civil registry office within 60 (sixty) days. The strict time-frame is imposed according to Article 27 of Law number 24 of 2013 regarding Administration of Population Law. You will see only the name of the child and its mother, but it is a starting point to initiate the process. The civil registry is to register the birth of your child. They don’t have any authority to prove the relationship between you and your child. You will have to do it in the court of law. Your Indonesian attorney knows technicality like this. Get one with experience in this field. You'll get hicough-free processing case. 

Before you sign that paternity affidavit, you have to make sure that you have the consent from the biological mother. Otherwise, the process will turn sour and your application might be end-up in limbo. The consent from the mother is a statutory requirement in Indonesia. You need to secure that before the application lodged to the court. This proceeding requires both of you to work together for the best interests of the child. I am not saying that you should light the flame between the two of you again. Although this thing does not require you to get marry to each other, but at least you must be able to sit down together and talk without pointing fingers. Think you can do it? If you do, click here give me a call or drop me an email to get our legal review about your case. 

Our thanks to Mr. Asep Wijaya of Wijaya & Co for sharing this article!

Child custody in Indonesia is a family issue that may come into subject matter of the court if you're filing for a divorce. This is something normal in relation to the divorce case. Both parents claim that they are the best for the custody of their children. But do they? How the laws in Indonesian govern something like this? Read on!

Fathers' Engagement

Nowadays, fathers are getting more engaged in the child upbringing in Indonesia. They take the children to school everyday before they go to work. Fathers read with their children at night, teach them and get involved with their everyday's schooling works. Some of them also take them for taking a bath, feed them and get them dressed decently. You can't ignore this phenomenon. This is happening everywhere. They are doing this because they think fathers can do it too. They can even do it better in getting involved with their child's upbringing in Indonesia.  At Wijaya & Co, we always pay attention to details of our client’s case. 

Mother's Career 

Just because your wife is working and have a career, it doesn’t mean that she can’t nurture the child. Just because she’s busy with work, it does not mean she may be able to lose custody of a child if a divorce case in session.

Husband and wife are equal in the marriage life. Both of them have the same rights in their career and business. According to Article 31 of Marriage Law imposed that both husband and wife have the rights to earn a living and. Even sometime, just sometime, wife’s  making more money than her husband. 

Custody of a Child

When you’re still married, they called it parental authority. If you’re divorced, they called it custody. Pretty much the same  issues. It just in Indonesia, we recognized custody parent, and non-custody parent. But this is in theory as in the law books. There's more to it than meet the eyes. The judges are happy as long as you and the child are happy. 

According to Article 105 of Compilation of Islamic Law, child under 12 (twelve) years old, the custody belongs to the mother. For the child above 12, he may choose his custody parent holder. Supreme Court’s ruling number 210/K/AG/1999 imposed that a mother’s privilege for child custody may be revoked if she’s committing apostate and practise other religion beside Islam.

Other Supreme Court’s precedence number 376/PK/Pdt/2011 regarding this matter is also applicable when the female spouse was committing apostate and turned Moslem. Nevertheless, the male spouse was charged with criminal sentence for abandoning their child. So, the judges favor the party with less liability in order to raise the child. 

How to Win the Custody

It’s simple: the best interest of the child! That’s the keywords. It does sounds simple, but might not be easy to do it. Many people knows it, but many of them also fail. Getting yourself involved in school with the children, and teaching them with their English reading are a good start. Really good start. Keep up the good work!

You don’t say that you are richer than your spouse and therefore makes you a better parent. You need to prove that you are better because you put the child first. You need to promote yourself, and destroy the credibility of the opposing party. It sounds cruel, but it's a divorce case anyway. The moment you lodged the case to the court, both of you are opponents. No longer husband and wife. After all, you're doing it for the child. You need to to do it in order to win the custody of the child. But hey! Remember this: it's not about you. It's about the child. Read my lips, put the child first. Please contact me when you need any further assistance with this issue. We have previous portfolios that you can use as your reference. Please contact me should you wish to discuss any further about this.


Our thanks to Mr. Asep Wijaya of Wijaya & Co for sharing this article!

Child legalization in Indonesia is a very important issues. This is the proceeding to legalize the child born outside of a legal marriage. He/she has legal relationship with the mother and her family only. In order to obtain a custody privilege, the alleged father must conduct child legalization. No legal relationship will be established between the father and the child without the consent from the biological mother.

Under the laws in Indonesia, the relationship between the child and the father is not recognized when it comes to the inheritance matters. At least, if you compare it with the legitimate child. The thing is, inheritance is some arrangements that will only be done when you're gone. You don't know whether your assets are being distributed according to your wishes and whether the child entitled to them or not. This is why the legalization of child born out of wedlock in Indonesia really matters, especially if you're from a Non Moslem family. At Wijaya & Co, we always pay attention to details of our client’s case.

As you probably aware, the inheritance issues are referred to the person's religion affiliation. We have Compilation of Islamic Law for Moslem families, and Civil Code. Since the issues of child born out of wedlock is very familiar with the civil law, there the law defines the child into three (3) categories as follows:

  1. A legitimate child, is the child born in the legal marriage of a man and a woman;
  2. A child born out of wedlock, but acknowledged by his father and/or his mother. The legal relationship is being established between the three (3) of them. They are now a family recognized by law, but it does not take effect to their extended families. The acknowledgement only applicable to the three of them. The law will consider the child as a legitimate one when the two of them are married to each other. 
  3. A child born out of wedlock. No acknowledgement made by the father as well as by the biological mother. Legally, he is an orphan. Poor child. No inheritance law applicable to him.

Civil Code has a very distinctive ruling on inheritance for child born out of wedlock in Indonesia. The law refer the child born out of wedlock as a "natural child." It is comprehensive and detailed. It avoids conflict between the heirs. In the event that the deceased has left legally acknowledged natural children, the inheritance shall be implemented as the following manners: According to the Article 863 and Article 865.

Article 863 stipulated that in the event the deceased has left any legal descendants or a spouse, the natural children is inherit one third of the share, which they would be entitled to if they were legal; they is inherit one half of the estate, if the deceased does not have any descendants, or spouse, but has blood relatives in the ascending line, or brothers and sisters or their descendants; and three quarters if the only remaining family is related in a more distant degree. If the legal heirs of the deceased are related in unequal degrees, the closest relative in one line is stipulate the amount of the share to which the natural child shall be entitled, even with respect to those who are in the other line.

The child born out of wedlock may inherit all the assets in the event his father (the deceased) passed-away without any other legal heir. Article 865 imposed that if the deceased has not left any legal heirs, then the natural children shall be entitled to the entire inheritance. 

The above stipulation is not applicable for the child born due to incest, and adultery. The aforementioned stipulations in Article 863 and Article 865 are not applicable to children conceived through adultery or incest. This imposed by the Article 867 of the Civil Code. 

As I said, the legalization of the child born out of wedlock is really matter. In fact, it's a big deal. It protects your child from the claims that may be made by other family members. Without the legalization, he only deserve 1/3 of the portion of the legitimate child. You need to do something to protect your flesh and blood. We both know that as parents we want the best for our children, and in this case, the legalization of the child born out of wedlock does really matters. Please contact me should you wish to discuss any further about this.


Our thanks to Mr. Asep Wijaya of Wijaya & Co for sharing this article!

Thursday, 21 March 2019 09:07

Child Custody in a Divorce Case in Indonesia

Child custody in Indonesia is one of the consequences of a divorce between a husband and a wife, Divorce may be the solution for both of you. It may be your best way out, but the law suggets it can only be used as a last resort. It means both of you should work hard to keep your marrriage intact. In Indonesia, you should have enough reason to dissolve your marriage. You just can’t say: “I have enough of you! Let’s get divorce!” They won’t allow you to get divorce on this ground. Article 39 (2) of the Marriage Law stipulated that in order to get a divorce, both husband and wife must have enough reason that they will not be able to live in harmony.

There are legal grounds of filing for divorce that every divorce lawyer in Indonesia has to advise his clients with, and they have been regulated in the Marriage Law, which are, in the event one of the parties:

  1. has committed adultery, is an alcoholic, is addicted to drugs, is a gambler or exhibits other vices which are difficult to cure;
  2. has left the other spouse for two consecutive years, without consent and without legitimate reasons or the absence of reasons beyond his control;
  3. has been sentenced to imprisonment for five (5) consecutive years or a longer period;
  4. has resorted to cruelty or severe ill treatment, endangering the life of the other spouse;
  5. has developed a disability or disease, preventing from fulfilling the duties of husband or wife; or
  6. has irreconcilable differences.

For couples married in Moslem ceremony, Article 166 of Islamic Compilation Law added two more legal ground to get divorce. They are:  a. You may get divorve in the event a husband broke his taklik talak. It’s a marriage vow soon after the Moslem couples performed the marriage. If you forget about it, you may want to check the back page of your marriage book; b. Apostate.  In the event your spouse convert back to his/her previous belief, other than Islam. The above legal grounds are optional. I mean, your divorce case doesn’t have to meet all of the legal grounds. You just have to include ome of them, and supply two witnesses to take the stand at the court room. 

As for the child custody, the decision follows after the marriage has been dissolved. The custody of a child under the age of 12 belongs to the mother. Article 105 of Islamic Compilation Law imposed that a child aged 12 (twelve) has a freedom to choose between its mother or father. They tend to give the custody to the mother because they think women is the best figure to nurture the child. They are more compassionate than men. They think women can do it better than men. In short, they think the Islamic Compilation Law has maternal preference. It's also has sole custody principle that allow one parent to be a custody holder, and the other parent is a non-custody parent. But, in the field of practice those things are not always happen. They don't always do their jobs. They can be either mentally unstable, committing adultery, leaving the child at home during night time to meet friends, hang out and partying all night, or even jeopardizing the child's well-being. Those are the circumstances where you as the father may take over the custody of your child. You can’t just say that you’re financially better than your wife, and you think you deserve the custody. Our Marriage Law considered husband is a bread maker in the family. You have the obligation to support your children. This is the universal value every where, I supposed.

The ultimate consideration of having a child custody is for the best interests of the child. It's imposed by the 2002 Child Protection Law. The judges assess and measure your ability in providing what’s best for your child. Factors included in the assessments are physical and mental health, intellectuality, independence, and utmost good faith in allowing his/her ex-spouse to have parenting and visitation. In another words, you still need to talk to you ex-spouse even though you are no longer married to each other. This is for the best interests of the child. The one that meets the requirements is the most eligible to serve as custody holder of the child.

I would like to bring your attention to the court verdict number 110K/AG/2007 issued by the Supreme Court in December 2007. The holding from the court was, among others, the ultimate consideration of having child custody (Hadhanah in Arabic term) is for the best interests of the child, not merely the most normatively entitled to. The court further stipulated that even though the child was only 7 (seven) years, and the mother frequently travelling overseas and leave the child all alone by herself, while the father actually always be there for the child giving her steady and stable life, so therefore they found the father was entitled to the custody of the child. This is one of the most brilliant court's products in Indonesia, and considered as "jeopardizing" the maternal preference since the Islamic Compilation Law enacted in 1991. But I mean, apart from that, you know, you can really lose your rights in getting child custody, even though the law prefers you due to gender preference. As parents, I believe we must put ourselves behind the children's interests and put them as our priority in life. I am sure we're all love our children so very much. 


Our thanks to Asep Wijaya, Managing Director of Wijaya & Co for sharing this information with us!

Child born out of wedlock in Indonesia may include its biological father on its birth certificate. The only way to do this is by getting the father acknowledge the child. They must support the claim with a DNA test, and backed by at least two witnesses. Furthermore, the legalization of a child must be court-approved. Otherwise, the civil law relationship between the father and his child will not be established. It is very important because this is where it all begins. 

The civil law relationship between the father and his child begins with a birth certificate. When you see his name on his child’s birth certificate, you will see they have something between them. This the truth lies in the amended Article 43 (1) of the Marriage Law. The legal protection given by the Constitutional Court with its breakthrough verdict. They are giving the child an identity printed on its birth certificate with full names of mom and dad. This is the real truth. You get the legal protection for the child in the form of a birth certificate. Nothing less, nothing more. Therefore, you need to do something about it for the sake of your child's future. 

Originally, the Article 43 (1) was not allow you to include the father’s name on the child’s birth certificate. It only recognize the relationship between the child and its biological mother. Some thinks that it’s not fair. Some thinks that it’s legally bastardizing the child. Other thinks we need to allow them to use both parents’ name on the child’s birth certificate, even though the marriage of the parents is still illegitimate. So, the amendment of this article is also about giving the child what they deserve and not to punish them for something what their parents did. The Civil Code furthermore imposed that as long as the child was acknowledged by the father and the mother, he/she may inherit from the parents. But the child may only have legal relationship with the person that acknowledge it. No further relationship with the rest of the family. In general, if a parent have legitimate children, a wife or a husband, the out of wedlock child entitles to only 1/3 of the legitimate child's share. 

As for Moslem couples, you need to dig this a little deeper as the amended Article 43 (1) will not create other consequences such as inheritance, and nasab relationship, as they thought they will have those two in the area of civil law. In Islamic Laws, if you’re conceiving a child outside of religious marriage, even though the father acknowledge it, the nasab relationship will not be established, even the father voluntarily acknowledge his child. Nasab relationship is parental relationship between the father and his child, created only through legitimate marriage betwen the father and the child's mother. Without it, there won’t be a nasab even the father acknowledges his child. This one of the inconvenient truths retrieved from the child legalization proceeding under the amended Article 43 (1) of the Marriage Certificate. 

If you're a Moslem, and you have an out of wedlock child, you need to refer further to the Islamic Compilation Law. This special civil law for Moslem couples governing activities like marriages, divorces, inheritances, and other issues related to family law. As for Non-moslem couples, you need to refer further to the Civil Code. According to those laws, both the Islamic Compilation Law, and the Civil Code, they imposed that child born out of wedlock can't inherit from the father, even though he acknowledges his child. This is a further legal consequences of child legalization as amended by the Article 43 (1). It seems to me, the amendment by the Constitutional Court was only to provide the child with a birth certificate with full parents' name. The ruling stops there. It does not solve any further complication regarding the issues related to the status of being an out of wedlock child. As parents of child born out of wedlock, you must not allow this to happen to you child. You need to do something. I would suggest you draw-up a last will and testament. This is the only possible solution to protect your child from the legal limbo regarding this issue in Indonesia


Our thanks to Asep Wijaya, Managing Director of Wijaya & Co for sharing this information with us!

Thursday, 17 January 2019 05:38

How to Retrieve a Child Custody Certificate?

Certificate of child custody in Indonesia certifies that you are the legal holder of a custody of a child, and therefore allows you to represent him/her inside and outside the court of law. Yup, inside and outside the court room. This term has a very broad meaning. Basically, as the holder, you are the legal representative of the child for his/her best interests. You may be considered as a guardian of the child. In order to secure the certificate for the child custody some terms and conditions applied under this situation.

The child is his/her parents’ responsibility until they reach legal age. In the event the marriage has been dissolved, Indonesia recognized custody-holder parent, and non-custody parent. In best practice, joint custody is also recognized and it must be set-out with a divorce settlement entered by both parents. The court loves this. They encourage you, the parents, to discuss the well-being of your child, even though you’re divorced.

The court acknowledged the settlement reached during in-court mediation. The divorce verdict shall include the custody and parenting plan. According to Article 41 of 1974 Marriage Law stipulates that in the event the marriage dissolved by divorce, the parents have the obligation to nurture and educate the children to the best interests of their children. If there’s a dispute in regards to the custody, the court may decide the case. Remember the keyword: "best interests of the child." This should not be translated as a situation that you are the bread-winner in the family. That may help you doing your parental works to support the child financially but it may not win the custody. You may ruin your ex-spouse credibility by submitting evidence that she/he is committing sexual misbehaviour. Although, that thing may be bring the judges' attention and creates such a court-room drama, but it won't likely to win you the case. 

In pursuing a custody of your child, I suggest you need to make sure you pay attention to your child's legal rights. Law number 23 of 2002 regarding Child Protection imposed the child's basic rights as follows:

  1. Every child has the right to acquire medical services and social security according to their physical, mental, spiritual, and social needs;
  2. When the child in the custody of his parents, guardian or any other party responsible for his/her custody, the child has the right protection from discrimination treatment, exploitation, either economically or sexually, abandonment, cruelty, violence, and torture, injustice, and other mistreatment. In the event the parents, guardian or care-giver committed any form of the above-mentioned treatment, the perpetrators must be imposed weighted-sentence.
  3. Every child has the right to be raised by his/her own parents, except if there is a reason and/or valid legal regulation that the separation is being done for the sake of child's best interests and shall be made as the last resort. In the event one parent has been decided by the court as the holder of child custody, she or he is not allowed to forbid his/her ex-spouse to meet the child. The custody holder parent must give the other parent a reasonable access of visitation. 

The same legal reasoning also applicable to certificate of child custody for the child born out of wedlock. This one is specifically made for creating physical evidence of legal relationship between the mother and the child. One thing that must exist in this case: the child was born outside of illegitimate relationship. There's no legal marriage between the child's mother and the man who got her pregnant. Therefore, you need to conduct a DNA test. The consent from the biological mother must first be obtained before the proceedings is being initiated. Whatever you do, be nice. This is totally her statutory rights. You can't do it without her OK. 

Our thanks to Mr. Asep Wijaya of Wijaya & Co for sharing this article!

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